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  1. 1. MEN IN THE MODERN EDUCATION PERIOD Presented: Mary Anne L. Gamboa
  3. 3. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART  Johann Friedrich Herbart, (born May 4, 1776, Oldenburg—died Aug. 14, 1841, Göttingen, Hanover), German philosopher and educator, who led the renewed 19th-century interest in Realism and is considered among the founders of modern scientific pedagogy.
  4. 4. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART  After studying under Johann Gottlieb Fichte at Jena (1794), Herbart worked as a tutor at Interlaken, Switz., from 1797 to 1800, during which period he made the acquaintance of Pestalozzi. Becoming a licentiate of the University of Göttingen in 1802, he was appointed extraordinary professor there in 1805.
  5. 5. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART  At the close of 1808 he became Kant’s successor as professor at Königsberg. There he also conducted a seminary of pedagogy until 1833, when he returned as professor of philosophy to Göttingen, where he remained until his death.
  6. 6. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART  His aims in this respect are expressed by the title of his textbook “Psychology as Knowledge Newly Founded on Experience, Metaphysics and Mathematics”, of central importance is the inclusion of Mathematik
  7. 7. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART  He rejected the whole concept of faculties (in Kantian terms) and regarded mental life as the manifestation of elementary sensory units or “presentations”.
  8. 8. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART  These he conceived as mental forces rather than as mere “ideas” in Locke’s sense. The study of their interactions gave rise to a statics and dynamics of the mind, to be expressed in mathematical formulas like those of Newtonian mechanics.
  9. 9. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART  Ideas need not be conscious; and they might either combine to produce composite resultants or conflict with one another so that some get temporarily inhibited or repressed “below the threshold of consciousness.”
  10. 10. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART  He stressed in an organized but unconscious system of associated ideas formed an “apperception mass” such a system could apperceive a new presentation and thus give it richer meaning. On this basis Herbart developed a theory of education as a branch of applied psychology.
  12. 12. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART THEORY OF EDUCATION  His theory of education—known as Herbartianism—was set out principally in two works,  “Pestalozzi’s Idea of an A B C of Sense Perception”) and  (1806; “Universal Pedagogy”), which advocated five formal steps in teaching:
  14. 14. HERBART’S THEORY OF EDUCATION  (1) Preparation a process of relating new material to be learned to relevant past ideas or memories in order to give the pupil a vital interest in the topic under consideration; -prepare students for the information that is going to be taught.
  15. 15. HERBART’S THEORY OF EDUCATION  (2) presentation, presenting new material by means of concrete objects or actual experience; -clearly present the new concept
  16. 16. HERBART’S THEORY OF EDUCATION  (3) Association, thorough assimilation of the new idea through comparison with former ideas and consideration of their similarities and differences in order to implant the new idea in the mind; -the new concept is compared contrasted to previous knowledge
  17. 17. HERBART’S THEORY OF EDUCATION  (4) Generalization, a procedure especially important to the instruction of adolescents and designed to develop the mind beyond the level of perception and the concrete; -principles are formed that combined new and previous learning
  18. 18. HERBART’S THEORY OF EDUCATION  (5) application, using acquired knowledge not in a purely utilitarian way, but so that every learned idea becomes a part of the functional mind and an aid to a clear, vital interpretation of life. This step is presumed possible only if the student immediately applies the new idea, making it his own. -exams and exercises to assess mastery
  19. 19.  Herbart maintained that a science of education was possible, and he furthered the idea that education should be a subject for university study.  His ideas took firm hold in Germany in the 1860s and spread also to the United States.  By the turn of the century, however, the five steps had degenerated to a mechanical formalism, and the ideas behind them were replaced by new pedagogical theories, in particular those of John Dewey.
  20. 20. Influence on Today’s Educational Practices  Relevant to NCLB (No Child Left Behind) guidelines Instruction should be efficient and effective Students should be tested to assess mastery of skills
  21. 21. DEMOCRATIZATIO N OF EDUCATION 19th – 20th century
  23. 23. PEDRO POVEDA  Pedro Poveda, founder of the Teresian Association, was born in Linares Spain on December 3, 1874. After he was ordained priest Guadix in 1874, he exercised his first apolistic ministry among the poor cave dwellers.
  24. 24. PEDRO POVEDA  He organized a livelihood program for adults and established a school for children. He gave himself to human and social advancement of the poor and marginalized people.
  25. 25. PEDRO POVEDA  In 1906, he was assigned as Canon in Marian Sanctuary of Covadonga. While in Covadonga, he became aware of the importance of education and the emerging trends, so he dedicated himself to solve the problems and confronted Christian Education at that time.
  26. 26. PEDRO POVEDA  He wrote to the university sector of Madrid where women were just beginning to take active part in the academic life of the universities.
  27. 27. PEDRO POVEDA  Modified the past Christian Education with his own Christian Humanism which commits Christianity to the upliftment of the and marginalized people. He founded the Teresian Association in 1911, a group of Christians commited to the transformation of the world through the Gospel.
  28. 28. PEDRO POVEDA  When the civil war broke out he was identified as an enemy by those who wished to dechristianized the schools. On July 28, 1936 he was shot to death for his faith and for the cause of Christian Education.
  29. 29. PEDRO POVEDA  He was beatified by Pope John Paul II at St. Peter´s Basilica on October 10, 1993, together with Victoria Diez, a member of the Teresian Association.
  30. 30. PEDRO POVEDA  May 4, 2003 marked the cannonization of Pedro Poveda by Pope John Paul II in Madrid, Spain. Fr. Poveda was declared as a SAINT. His work is continued by the continenets where the Teresian Association is.
  31. 31. PEDOVA’S CONTRIBUTION TO EDUCATION  Father Poveda was deeply aware of both the need for education in his country, and for qualified teachers to provide it. He also saw this as an important role for women.  In 1911 Pedro founded the St. Teresa of Avila Academy in Oviedo for those ladies studying to become teachers.  He named it after St. Teresa of Avila, a woman of learning, a doctor of the Church, and a teacher of prayer.
  32. 32. PEDOVA’S CONTRIBUTION TO EDUCATION  He named his organization the Teresian Association.  Its aim is to invite men and women to work for a social and human transformation, in accordance with Gospel values, from the platform of their own professions, especially those related to the fields of education and culture.
  33. 33. PEDOVA’S CONTRIBUTION TO EDUCATION  The early members of the Association were women involved in all levels of education, from elementary to the provision of higher education for women. Additional academies were established in many other cities of Spain.
  34. 34. Fundamental concerns of Poveda  Education of the popular classes,  the professional association of teachers and social advancement,  faculty training
  35. 35. Philosophy of Education  His thinking has been developed in a sequence of articulated statements about education, which together enclose an authentic humanism, which we always find attached to the concrete experience, to the test of truth which are the facts themselves, and to the survival of his ideas in countless educators of yesterday and today.
  36. 36.  We will always find in the expressions of Poveda’s style to educate the reference to the principles of personalizing education, inclusive, open, multicultural, communicative, rooted in Christian values, committed to the process of human growth for all involved in it, and social transformation
  37. 37. Influence on Today’s Educational Practices
  38. 38. John Henry Newman PROPONENT
  39. 39. John Henry Newman  John Henry Newman, C.O (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was an English theologian, scholar an d poet, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century. He was known nationally by the mid-1830s, and was canonised as a saint in the Catholic Church in 2019.
  40. 40. John Henry Newman  Originally an evangelical University of Oxford academic and priest in the Church of England, Newman became drawn to the high-church tradition of Anglicanism. He became one of the more notable leaders of the Oxford Movement, an influential and controversial grouping of Anglicans who wished to return to the Church of England many Catholic beliefs and liturgical rituals from before the English Reformation.
  41. 41. John Henry Newman  In this, the movement had some success. After publishing his controversial "Tract 90" in 1841, Newman later wrote, "I was on my death-bed, as regards my membership with the Anglican Church". In 1845 Newman, joined by some but not all of his followers, officially left the Church of England and his teaching post at Oxford University and was received into the Catholic Church.
  42. 42. John Henry Newman  He was quickly ordained as a priest and continued as an influential religious leader, based in Birmingham. In 1879, he was created a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII in recognition of his services to the cause of the Catholic Church in England. He was instrumental in the founding of the Catholic University of Ireland (CUI) in 1854, although he had left Dublin by 1859. CUI in time evolved into University College Dublin.[13]
  43. 43. John Henry Newman  Newman was also a literary figure: his major writings include the Tracts for the Times (1833– 1841), his autobiography Apologia Pro Vita Sua (1865–1866), the Grammar of Assent (1870), and the poem The Dream of Gerontius (1865), which was set to music in 1900 by Edward Elgar. He wrote the popular hymns "Lead, Kindly Light", "Firmly I believe, and truly" (taken from Gerontius), and "Praise to the Holiest in the Height" (taken from Gerontius).
  44. 44. John Henry Newman  In 1854, at the request of the Irish Catholic bishops, Newman went to Dublin as rector of the newly established Catholic University of Ireland, now University College, Dublin. It was during this time that he founded the Literary and Historical Society. After four years, he retired. He published a volume of lectures entitled The Idea of a University, which explained his philosophy of education.
  45. 45. PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, “The idea of University”  Newman believed in a middle way between free thinking and moral authority—one that would respect the rights of knowledge as well as the rights of revelation.
  46. 46. NEWMAN’S CONTRIBUTION TO EDUCATION, “The idea of University”  His purpose was to build a Catholic university, in a world where the major Catholic universities on the European continent had recently been secularised, and most universities in the English- speaking world were Protestant.
  47. 47. NEWMAN’S CONTRIBUTION TO EDUCATION, “The idea of University”  For a university to claim legitimacy in the larger world, it would have to support research and publication free from church censorship; however, for a university to be a safe place for the education of Catholic youth, it would have to be a place in which the teachings of the Catholic church were respected and promoted.[
  48. 48.  His idea of University is a landmark in writing on the nature of university education. In which he defined the function of a university as the training of the mind rather than a diffusion of practical information, and treats in particular the place of theology within such a comprehensive framework, Newman particularly the place of theology within such a comprehensive framework.
  49. 49.  The holiness of Newmans life and the importance of his influenceshave led to a movement seeking to have him cannonized.  On January 22,1991, Pope John Paul II who greatly admires Cardinal Newman, declared him “venerable”.
  50. 50. The essence of education according to Newman  For Newman, the aim is to develop the mind and it is facilitated through a liberal education that is egalitarian not elitist. He argues that liberal education is consistent with the ordinary natural process that enables learners to develop their minds and think for themselves.
  51. 51. Purpose of University by Newman  Rather than making students capable only of doing some particular job or producing mere professionals or technical hands, the university, according to Newman, produces "liberally educated gentlemen" (and gentlewomen) who are endowed with "[a] cultivated intellect, a delicate taste, a candid, equitable, dispassionate mind, a noble and courteous bearing in the conduct of life."
  52. 52. References Abinales J. (2014). Froebel and Herbart Akhter M. (2021). The Idea of a University vision and our reality. Brown B. (2014). Foundations of Education Tulio D. Ph.D (2008). Foundations of education 2, Second Edition, chapter 7, pg 92- 95 Provenzo E. and A. Encyclopedia of the Social and Cultural Foundations of Education. Kridel C.(2010) Encyclopedia of Curriculum studies. Fr.Ker I. (2008). Newman on Education Prof. Nael M. (2017). Foundations of Education