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Anatomy of skin by dr.sana

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Anatomy of skin by dr.sana

  1. 1. Anatomy of the Skin Dr. Sana Sultana BSPT, MS-OMPT
  2. 2. Skin • A membranous protective covering of the body consisting of Epidermis (superficial Part)and Dermis (deep Part) • The study of skin disease is called Dermatology. • The branch of physical therapy related to skin care is called Integumentary Physical Therapy.
  3. 3. Function of the skin • The skin, the largest organ of the body, is readily accessible, and is one of the best indicators of general health (Swartz, 2001) • The skin provides protection for the body from environmental effects, such as abrasion and harmful substances. • Preventing dehydration. • Heat regulation through sweat glands, blood vessels, and fat deposits. • Sensation (e.g., pain) by way of superficial nerves and their sensory endings. • Synthesis and storage of vitamin D.
  4. 4. Epidermis • The epidermis is stratified epithelium whose cells become flattened as they mature and rise to the surface. • The epidermis is extremely thick at the palms of the hand and soles of the feet to withstand with the wear and tear at that regions. • On the other surface of the body like arm and forearm it is thin.
  5. 5. Dermis (deep layer) • The dermis is composed of dense connective tissue containing many blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. • It shows considerable variation in thickness in different parts of the body, tending to be thinner on the anterior than on the posterior surface. It is thinner in women than in men. • The dermis of the skin is connected to the underlying deep fascia or bones by the superficial fascia, otherwise known as subcutaneous tissue.
  6. 6. • The skin over joints always folds in the same place, the skin creases At these sites, the skin is thinner than elsewhere and is firmly tethered to underlying structures by strong bands of fibrous tissue. • The appendages of the skin are the nails, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands.
  7. 7. Nails • The nails are keratinized plates on the dorsal surfaces of the tips of the fingers and toes. The proximal edge of the plate is the root of the nail . • With the exception of the distal edge of the plate, the nail is surrounded and overlapped by folds of skin known as nail folds. The surface of skin covered by the nail is the nail bed. • Keratinisation: The conversion of squamous epithelial cells into a horny material, such as nails. Also called cornification.
  8. 8. Hairs • Hairs grow out of follicles, which are invaginations of the epidermis into the dermis. The follicles lie obliquely to the skin surface, and their expanded extremities, called hair bulbs, penetrate to the deeper part of the dermis. • Each hair bulb is concave at its end, and the concavity is occupied by vascular connective tissue called hair papilla.
  9. 9. General structure of the skin and its relationship to the superficial fascia. Note that hair follicles extend down into the deeper part of the dermis or even into the superficial fascia, whereas sweat glands extend deeply into the superficial fascia.
  10. 10. Arrector Pili • A band of smooth muscle, the arrector pili, connects the undersurface of the follicle to the superficial part of the dermis . • The muscle is innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers, and its contraction causes the hair to move into a more vertical position; it also compresses the sebaceous gland and causes it to extrude some of its secretion. • The pull of the muscle also causes dimpling of the skin surface, so-called gooseflesh. (A abnormal roughness of the skin produced by cold or fear, in which the hair follicles become erect and form bumps on the skin}
  11. 11. Distribution of hairs in the body • Hairs are distributed in various numbers over the whole surface of the body, except on the lips, the palms of the hands, the sides of the fingers, the glans penis and clitoris, the labia minora and the internal surface of the labia majora, and the soles and sides of the feet and the sides of the toes.
  12. 12. Gland of the skin • Sebaceous glands pour their secretion, the sebum, onto the shafts of the hairs as they pass up through the necks of the follicles. They are situated on the sloping undersurface of the follicles and lie within the dermis . Sebum is an oily material that helps preserve the flexibility of the emerging hair. It also oils the surface epidermis around the mouth of the follicle. • Sweat glands are long, spiral, tubular glands distributed over the surface of the body, except on the red margins of the lips, the nail beds, and the glans penis and clitoris. These glands extend through the full thickness of the dermis, and their extremities may lie in the superficial fascia. The sweat glands are therefore the most deeply penetrating structures of all the epidermal appendages.
  13. 13. Applied anatomy of the Skin • Paronchia • Boils and carbuncles • Sebaceous Cyst of the scalp • Skin Grafting • Skin burn
  14. 14. Skin Burn • Burns are tissue injuries caused by thermal, electrical, radioactive, or chemical agents. • In first-degree burns, the damage is limited to the superficial part of the epidermis. • In second-degree burns, the damage extends through the epidermis into the superficial part of the dermis. However, except for their most superficial parts, the sweat glands and hair follicles are not damaged and can provide the source of replacement cells for the basal layer of the epidermis. • In third-degree burns, the entire epidermis, dermis, and perhaps underlying muscle are damaged. • A minor degree of healing may occur at the edges, but the open ulcerated portions require skin grafting.
  15. 15. Fasciae • A fatty layer beneath the skin and of two types. • Superficial fascia • Deep fascia Location of the fasciae: lies between the skin and the underlying muscles and bones.
  16. 16. Superficial Fascia • The superficial fascia, or subcutaneous tissue, is a mixture of loose areolar and adipose tissue that unites the dermis of the skin to the underlying deep fascia . • In the scalp, the back of the neck, the palms of the hands, and the soles of the feet, it contains numerous bundles of collagen fibers that hold the skin firmly to the deeper structures. • In the eyelids, auricle of the ear, penis and scrotum, and clitoris, it is devoid of adipose tissue.
  17. 17. Deep Fascia • The deep fascia is a membranous layer of connective tissue that invests the muscles and other deep structures . • In the thorax and abdomen, it is merely a thin film of areolar tissue covering the muscles and aponeuroses. In the limbs, it forms a definite sheath around the muscles and other structures, holding them in place. • Fibrous septa extend from the deep surface of the membrane, between the groups of muscles, and in many places divide the interior of the limbs into compartments . In the region of joints, the deep fascia may be considerably thickened to form restraining bands called retinacula . Their function is to hold underlying tendons in position or to serve as pulleys around which the tendons may move.
  18. 18. Fasciae Distribution in the arm
  19. 19. Structure of the skin and subcutaneous tissues
  20. 20. Skin receptors • Free Nerve Ending – Pain Receptor (Nociceptor) – Mechanoreceptor (Pacinian) – Thermoreceptor (Hypothalamus) – Associated • Merkel Discs (Lt Touch) • Hair Follicle Receptor • Itch Receptor – Histamine (Chemical) or, – Bradykinin (Inflammation)
  21. 21. Encapsulate Dendritic Endings – Meissner’s Corpuscles • Discriminative touch • Light touch receptor (hairless skin vs hair follicle) – Pacinian Corpuscle • Mechanoreceptor • Deep Pressure • Only respond with first application • Monitor vibration – Ruffini’s Corpuscle • Mechanoreceptor • Deep and continuous pressure
  22. 22. Boils
  23. 23. Carbuncles
  24. 24. Cyst
  25. 25. Paronchia
  26. 26. Graft
  27. 27. ALLAH Bless You