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ACCIDENTS

  1. 1. ACCIDENTS RAJARAM SETHY B.Sc Nursing MANJARI DEVI COLLEGE OF NURSING, BHUBANESWAR
  2. 2. 🙏INTRODUCTION🙏 👉 Accident, unexpected event, typically sudden in nature and associated with injury, loss, or harm. Accidents are a common feature of the human experience and result in injury or permanent disability to large numbers of people worldwide every year. Many accidents also involve damage to or loss of property.
  3. 3. 📊GRAPHICAL PHOTOS📊
  4. 4. 🙂DEFINITION🙂 👍 An undesirable or unfortunate happening that occurs unintentionally and usually results in harm, injury, damage, or loss; casualty; mishap . 👍An unforeseen and unplanned event or circumstance (Merriam Webster Dictionary)
  5. 5. 🔺EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD🔺 . AGENT HOST ENVIRONMENT
  6. 6. 🕴️AGENT🕴️ 🕺 Accident can occur to anyone , anytime at any place , because it is the uninvited tragedy with multiple causative ( predisposing ) factors : 👉Overcrowding , lack of awareness and poor implementa tion of essential safety precautions result in an increasing number of accidents . 👉Rapid increase in Vehicular Traffic. 👉Semiskilled and unskilled workers in operation . 👉Consumption of poisonous substance intentionally or unintentionally . 👉Age is one of the major risk factors for drowning . This relationship is often associated with a lapse in supervision .
  7. 7. 🤷HOST FACTOR🤷 😷Accident can happen to anyone irrespective of age accidents . E.g. , drowning in children , fire accidents in and sex . Some age groups are closely related to certain women who cook at kitchen. 😷People who are inexperienced in driving , teenage boys mental status of the people ( depression , frustration anxiety anger , sickness , alchoholics ) all add to the risk of meeting with accident . 😷Disrespecting the safety rules while driving like not wearing helmet , not applying safety belts as well , driving without license etc.
  8. 8. 🏞️ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS🏞️ 💁Lack of familiarity about the routes , poor lighting , huge speed breakers, narrow and defective layouts of cross roads are the factors relating to road that are potentially at risk for causing accident . 💁Low driving standards , old and poorly maintained vehicles , excessive speed overloaded buses , and large number of two wheelers are the vehicle related factors causing accidents . 💁Bad weather and inadequate enforcement of law are the weather causes for accident , mixed traffic like fast moving pedestrians and animals . 💁Illiteracy and ignorance .
  9. 9. 🤔CLASSIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS🤔 1)Road traffic Accident 2)Domestic Accident -:Drowning,Burns,Falls,Poisoning,Injuries from sharp,Bites and other injuries from animals . 3)Industrial Accidents 4)Aircraft crash 5)Marine Accidents 6)Violence
  10. 10. ROAD TRAFFIIC ACCIDENT{RTA} DEFINITION -: A Road Traffic Accident ( RTA ) can be defined as , an event that occurs on a way or street open to public traffic ; resulting in one or more persons being injured or killed , where at least one moving vehicle is involved * . Transport Research Wing , Ministry of Road Transport and Highways . Road Accidents in India 2011. New Delhi : Ministry of Road Transport and Highways , Government of India : 2012 . (1)
  11. 11. ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS The leading cause of death of young people aged 15-29 years
  12. 12. 😳Latest estimated records from 2007 in India tells that : 👉1.25,000 deaths 👉 25,00,000 serious injuries 👉62,50,000 mild injuries 😳India has only 1 % of vehicles in the world but accounts for nearly 6 % of the total cases of unintentional injuries .
  13. 13. CASES OF ROAD TRAFFIIC ACCIDENT IN 2019 AND 2020
  14. 14. RTA: Epidemiological Triad
  15. 15. Causative Factor -:
  16. 16. Other Riskfactor -: 🧶Risk factors influencing injury severity: 👉Lack of in – vehicle crash protection 👉Non – use of crash helmets by two – wheeled vehicle users 👉Non – use of seat – belts and child restraints in motor vehicles 👉Roadside objects 🧶Risk factors influencing post – crash injury outcome -: 👉- Pre – hospital factors 👉 – Hospital care factors
  17. 17. 🧶Factors influencing exposure to risk -: 👉Rapid motorization 👉Demographic factors 👉Transport , land use and road network planning 👉Increased need for travel 👉Choice of less safe forms of travel 🧶Risk factors influencing crash involvement : 👉Speed 👉Pedestrians and cyclists 👉Young drivers and riders 👉Alcohol 👉Medicinal and recreational drugs 👉Driver fatigue 👉Hand – held mobile telephones
  18. 18. 🙋Steps to be taken for preventing.🙋 :- Road Accidents -: 💁Most important method to bring down accidents is strict enforcement of speed limits . 💁90 % of accidents can be avoided by strict enforcement of speed limits . 💁Existing speed limits should be brought down further . 💁Heavy Penalty should be imposed on all those who cross speed limits . 💁Heavy penalty should be imposed for those who cause accidents . 💁Tamper proof speed controllers should be made mandatory for all heavy vehicles . 💁Two wheeler manufacturers should be asked to design two wheelers with a designed maximum speed of ( say ) 50/60 kmph .
  19. 19. 💁New gadgets are to be developed for collision prevention and should be fitted on all vehicle . 💁Diving tests for issue of driving license is to be made more stringent and foolproof . 💁Raising of lower age limit for two wheeler and Heavy Vehicle license to 21 . 💁Research organizations should be asked to develop such gadgets on a war footing . 💁Helmet should be made compulsory by law in all states , OR impose a lower speed limit for those who do not use helmet . ----×----
  20. 20. DOMESTIC ACCIDENT 🙅 DROWNING -: 🔘Experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion / immersion in liquid . ▶️Victim loses consciousness after approximately 2 minutes of immersion . ▶️ Irreversible brain damage can take place after 4-6 minutes. (2)
  21. 21. RISK FACTORS-: 🔳AGE- In general children under 5 years of age have the highest drowning mortality rates worldwide . Canada and New Zealand are the only exceptions , adult males drown at higher rates . 🔳GENDER- Males are especially at risk of drowning with twice the overall mortality rate of females due to increased exposure to water and riskier behaviour such as swimming alone , drinking alcohol before swimming and boating . 🔳ACCESS TO WATER – Commercial fisherman,children playing near ponds or any water body .
  22. 22. 🔳 OTHER FACTORS-: a)Infants left unsupervised,or with another child in a bathtub b)Medical conditions , such as epilepsy c)Tourists unfamiliar with local water risks and features D)Floods and other cataclysmic events like tsunamis . PREVENTIONS OF DROWNING -: ▶️ENGINEERING:- methods which help to remove the hazard ( Most effective strategy ) includes : a) Development and implementation of safe water systems , such as drainage systems piped water systems , flood control embankments in flood prone areas . B) Building four – sided pool fences or barriers preventing access to standing water . C) Creating and maintaining safe water zones for recreation . D) Covering of wells or open cisterns . E) Emptying buckets and bathtubs , and storing them upside down
  23. 23. ▶️LEGISLATION-: To enforce prevention and assure decreased exposure and laws including regular safety checks of transportation vessels , and laws on alcohol use while boating or swimming . ▶️EDUCATION-:For individuals and communities on drowning awareness , learning water survival skills and ensuring the presence of lifeguards at swimming areas are promising strategy to prevent drowning . ------------
  24. 24. 🙅 BURN’S :- 🔘A burn is an injury to the skin or tissue primarily by Heat due to radiation , radioactivity , electricity , friction or contact with chemicals .
  25. 25. RISK FACTORS -: ▶️GENDER:- Females suffer burns more frequently than males due to open fire cooking , or inherently unsafe stoves , which can ignite loose clothing . ▶️AGE :- Along with adult women , children particularly 1-9yrs . Are vulnerable to burns , because of improper adult supervision or Maltreatment – ▶️OTHER FACTORS-: A ) occupations that increase exposure to fire . B ) poverty , overcrowding and lack of proper safety measures . C ) placement of young girls in household roles such as cooking and care of small children . D ) underlying medical conditions , including epilepsy , peripheral neuropathy . E ) alcohol abuse and smoking . F ) easy access to chemicals used for assault ( such as in acid violence attacks ) . G ) use of kerosene ( paraffin ) as a fuel source for non – electric domestic appliances . H ) inadequate safety measures for liquefied petroleum gas and electricity
  26. 26. PREVENTION OF BURN’S -: ▶️Installation of fire and smoke alarms . ▶️Replace pressure stoves with gas stoves . FIRST AID
  27. 27. 🙅 FALLS-: 🔘Falls are responsible for the largest number of hospital visits for non – fatal injuries , especially for children and young adults . 🔘Falls from rooftops , balconies , windows and stair cases are common .
  28. 28. 🔘Factors specific to SEAR countries are falls from trees of workers picking fruits or coconuts , children falling from rooftops while flying kites , high incidence of falls among construction and forestry workers .
  29. 29. RISK FACTOR’S-: ▶️Occupations at elevated heights or other hazardous working conditions . ▶️ Alcohol or substance use . ▶️Socio – economic factors including poverty , overcrowded housing , young maternal age . ▶️Underlying medical conditions , such as neurological , cardiac or other disabling conditions . ▶️Side – effects of medication , physical inactivity and loss of balance , particularly among older people . ▶️Unsafe environments , particularly for those with poor balance and limited vision .
  30. 30. PREVENTION OF FALLS-: ▶️FOR CHILDREN a) Effective interventions include multifaceted community programmes . B) Engineering modifications of nursery furniture , playground equipment , and other Products . C) Legislation for the use of window guard . ▶️FOR OLDER INDIVIDUALS a) Screening within living environments for risks for falls . B) Clinical interventions to identify risk factors , such as medication review and modification , treatment of low blood pressure , Vitamin D and calcium supplementation , treatment of correctable visual impairment. C)Home assessment and environmental modification for those with known risk factors or a history of falling d) Prescription of appropriate assistive devices to address physical and sensory impairments . E) Muscle strengthening and balance retraining prescribed by a trained health professional .
  31. 31. 🙅 POISONING-: ▶️Poisoning Most Common agents responsible for poisoning are-: Kerosene Pesticides Household chemicals Drugs
  32. 32. ▶️Many countries also report accidental ingestion of kerosene as a leading cause of poisoning , especially among children . ▶️A study from Thailand revealed that 54 percent of cases of poisoning among pre school children involved therapeutic drugs
  33. 33. 🙅 SNAKE BITE-: ▶️Snake bite is a neglected public health issue in many tropical and subtropical countries . ▶️Women , children and farmers in poor rural communities in low and middle income countries are more often injured . ▶️Outcome of snake bite depends on numerous factors . 👉Species of snake 👉Area of the body bitten 👉Amount of venom injected 👉Health condition of the victim
  34. 34. ▶️Feelings of terror and panic are common after a snake bite and can produce a characteristic set of symptoms mediated by the autonomic nervous system , such as a tachycardia and nausea . ▶️A bite may also trigger an anaphylactic reaction , which is potentially fatal . Early clues that a patient has Severe Envenoming : 👉Snake identified as a very dangerous one . 👉Rapid early extension of local swelling from the site of the bite . 👉Early tender enlargement of local lymph nodes , indicating spread of venom in the lymphatic system . 👉Early systemic symptoms : collapse ( hypotension , shock ) , nausea , vomiting , diarrhoea , severe headache , “ heaviness “ of the eyelids , inappropriate ( pathological ) drowsiness or early ptosis / Ophthalmoplegia . 👉Early spontaneous systemic bleeding . 👉Passage of dark brown / black urine .
  35. 35. 🙅FIRST AID:- ▶️Reassure:- the patient 70 % of all snake bites are from non – venomous species . Only 50 % of bites by venomous species actually envenomate the patient . ▶️Immobilize:- in the same way as a fractured limb . Use bandages or cloth to hold the splints , not to block the blood supply or apply pressure . 👉Do not apply any compression in the form of tight ligatures , they don’t work and can be dangerous . Do not give alcoholic beverages or stimulants . They are known vasodilators and they speed up the absorption of venom . 👉Remove any items or clothings which may constrict the bitten limb if it swells ( rings , bracelets , watches , footwear , etc. ) . 👉 Do not incise or manipulate the bitten site . Do not apply ice . 👉Transport the patient to a medical faculty for definitive treatment .
  36. 36. (3) 🏭INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT🏭 ▶️ What is anAccidential Accident ? 👉 It can be define as “ An accident or occupational accident is an event of accident that suddenly occurs when one or no . Of employees / workers placed in plant . 👉For instance , In an organization a person / labor while working receiving an electric current , a labor cut his finger from machine , blast in chemical industry because of various reasons , fired in textile section etc .. 👉These are all the example of industrial accidents .
  37. 37. TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT:- 1) According to length of Recovery:- FIRST AID ACCIDENT Here these workers receive First aid at plant hospital and Then return to the job . LOST TIME ACCIDENT Here the worker loses a Day or shift In which accident Occurs. Compensation is Given to the employee By Employer for the Severity Of accident. HOME CASE ACCIDENT Worker loses remainder of shift or turn on which the Accident has occurred.
  38. 38. 2) According to the nature of injury:-
  39. 39. 3) According to the Cause of event :-
  40. 40. CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT-: 👉Accident do not have any single cause . These are the result of combination of factors which may vary from situation to situation . 👉It is possible to classify accident causes under the headings : PLANT-E.g-Afaulty layout , electrical and chemical hazard . EQUIPMENT-E.g-A defective guard incorrect equipment . ENVIRONMENT-E.g- Incorrectoise,insufficient light and Ventilation. PEOPLE-E.g- Careless,untrained,overstressed. SYSTEMS OF WORK-E.g-Poor procedure,Bad housekeeping . P- E- E- P- S-
  41. 41. Unsafe condition 👉 Improperly guarded equipment 👉Inadequate warning system 👉Poor Ventilation system 👉Fire and Explosive hazard 👉Improper plant layout 👉Congestion of workplace 👉Hazardous atmospheric conditions 👉Poor Housekeeping 👉Excessive noise and Radiation explosure Unsafe act 👉Operating equipment at improper speed 👉Operating equipment without authority 👉Using equipment improperly 👉Engaging with gambling 👉Use of alcohols by employees 👉Improper loading and placement of equipment 👉Improperlifting and taking improper position 👉Using Defective equipment 👉Throwing Material on the floor which leads to obstacle
  42. 42. INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION:- Accident prevention may be define as “ an integrated program , a series of coordinated activities , directed to the control unsafe personal performance and unsafe mechanical condition ”
  43. 43. 🔘INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS :- 👉AN HAZARD IS ANY PRACTICE , BEHAVIOUR OR CONDITION OR COMBINATION OF THESE THAT CAN CAUSE INJURY OR ILLNESS TO PEOPLE OR DAMAGE TO PROPERTY . HAZARDS + EXPOSURE-→ ACCIDENTS IT AFFECTS :- P PEOPLE PROPERTY PROCESSES -------
  44. 44. 🛫AIRCRAFT CRASH🛫 ▶️ INTRODUCTION 👉Travel by air is the safest mode of transportation . However , when a plane crashes it usually results in serious injury and death . Although airplane crashes are extremely rare , they do happen . 👉When a major airline disaster occurs , the federal government provides support services to the families of victims and to survivors . (4)
  45. 45. Most airplane crashes are caused by one or more of the following : 👉Pilot error 👉Defective equipment 👉Defective design or structural problems with the airplane 👉Faulty maintenance or repair of the airplane , 👉Fuel problems .
  46. 46. 🚢MARINE ACCIDENT🚢 ▶️What is marine accident ? 👉Damage to a ship or facilities other than a ship related to the operations of a ship death or injury of the people concerned with the construction , equipment or operation of a ship . (5)
  47. 47. Causes of Marine Accidents:- ⚓Natural conditions ⚓Technical failures ⚓Route conditions ⚓Ship – related factors ⚓Piracy & Terrorism ⚓Human error
  48. 48. TYPES OF MARINE ACCIDENT ⚓Cruise Vessel Mishaps ⚓Offshore Oil Rig Mishaps ⚓Commercial Fishing Mishaps ⚓Accidents on Crude Oil Tankers and Cargo Ships ⚓Grounding of Ships ⚓Maritime Accident because of Drugs and alcohol ⚓Crane Mishaps ⚓Accidents in Shipyards ⚓Maritime Accidents on Diving Support Vessels ⚓Accidents on Barges ⚓Cargo Hauling Accidents
  49. 49. Preventive Measures:- 1)Achieving a Society with No maritime Accidents ⚓Preventing the occurrence of maritime accidents . ⚓ Promoting prompt and appropriate search rescue , and emergency services system for passengers . 2)Objectives Set in Maritime Traffic Safety ⚓To prevent the accidents that would close waterways in congested waters and reduce the number of such accidents to zero. ⚓To strive to reduce the annual number of people who die or go missing in maritime accidents .
  50. 50. 3)Measures for Maritime Traffic Safety ⚓Promoting various measures continuously to prevent maritime accidents . ⚓Improving and enhancing the systems for prompt and proper lifesaving . ⚓Improving the maritime traffic environment ⚓Disseminating knowledge on maritime safety ⚓Securing safe vessel navigation ⚓Ensuring vessel safety ⚓Enhancing safety measures for small vessels ⚓Enforcing laws in maritime traffic ⚓Enhancing rescue and emergency services systems . ⚓Promoting victim support
  51. 51. VIOLENCE ▶️DEFINITION:- 👉Violence is defined by the “WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION” as the intentional use of physical force or power , threatened or actual , against oneself , another person , or against a group or community , that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury , death , psychological harm , mal development or deprivation . (6)
  52. 52. Violence – Types:- ▶️Domestic violence / Individual motivated violence ( Bride burning , Honor killing , Sati ) ▶️Interpersonal Violence Family dispute , family arguments , communal hatreds ▶️Child abuse violence ( Beating / hitting / kicking / sexual violence ) ▶️Social violence ( By social groups , politics / temple festivals / ) Religious violence , domestic violence , caste violence , violence against women , violence against minorities , etc
  53. 53. ▶️Violence can be broadly categorized according to characteristics of those committing the violent act : 👉Self – directed violence 👉Interpersonal violence 👉Community violence 👉Collective violence 🔘Social violence 🔘Political violence 🔘Economic violence
  54. 54. CAUSES OF VIOLENCE:- ▶️Violence cannot be attributed to a single factor . Its causes are complex and occur at different levels . ▶️The following four – level version of the socio – ecological is often used the study of violence : 🔘Personal 🔘Family or friends 🔘Community 🔘Society
  55. 55. Strategies to Prevent Violence Strategy # 1 : Self – Control Duffy and Finkel (2009) Strategy # 2 : Yoga Bilderbeck et al (2013) Strategy # 3 : Empathy Training Feshbach and Feshbach (1982) Strategy # 4 : Anti – Bullying Programs Jeong and Lee (2013) Strategy # 5 : Mindfulness Franco et al (2016) Strategy # 6 : The Metropolitan Area Child Study Research Group (2007)
  56. 56. SUMMARY
  57. 57. 🙏CONCLUSION🙏 I CONCLUDED MY TOPIC Accident could not be completely avoided, but its occurrence could be prevented. To prevent accident to children, adults should pay more attention to home safety. They should also clear any hidden “hazards” at home and teach children about safety.
  58. 58. REFERENCE:- NET REFERENCE (1)http://www.slideshare.net/sujathasathananthan1/roa d-traffic-accidents- (2)http://www.slideshare.net/NitinKumar1319/domestic- accidents (3)http://www.slideshare.net/AshishDiggi/industrial- accidents-hazards? (4)http://www.slideshare.net/dorismmahoney/causes-of- airplane-accidents? (5)http://www.slideshare.net/ShobiyaParamasivam/mari ne-accidents-80037412 (6)http://www.slideshare.net/DrJBalamuruganPhD/violen ce-157725388
  59. 59. THANK YOU

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