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Diagnostic Neuroradiology
Diagnostic Neuroradiology
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Neuroradiology slideshare



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Neuroradiology slideshare

  1. 1.  Simple Radiography Cheaper Accuracy is low Only bone not the brain is visualized
  2. 2.  CT Scan/ Computerized Tomography  Magnetic Resonance Imaging  CT Angiography  Nuclear medicine__ PET, SPECT  Ultrasound__ mainly for neonates  INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
  3. 3.  CT imaging uses X-rays to produce cross sectional images/slices of the brain.  As x-rays pass through the body they are absorbed or attenuated differently. These varying attenuation value / CT value give information on normal and abnormal structure in the brain and spine producing an image
  4. 4.  CT Scanner is work horse of neuroimaging and is the imaging method of choice .Trauma . Cerebro- vascular accidents .Epilepsy/ Fit/ Seizure . Altered consciousness . Pyrexia of unknown origin .Intracranial mass/ Raised ICT
  5. 5.  CT plays a critical role in the early screening of diagnosis of many brain diseases in spine imaging and in orbital facial disease
  6. 6.  Avoid screening in pregnancy  Allergy to contrast  Renal impairment  Hypothyrodism  Phaeochromocytoma  Myaesthenia gravis
  7. 7.  Radiation dose  Reaction to Contrast eg. Average effective dose chest x-ray is about 20mSV, brain CT 2200mSV which is close to amount of back ground radiation that an average person receives in a year from atmosphere even if they don’t have any diagnostic imaging of any kind 2400mSV
  8. 8.  Plain : NCCT  Contrast: CECT contrast is not used in case of TRAUMA and CVA contrast goes to vascular and viable tissue
  9. 9.  FRACTURE
  13. 13. BRAIN MASS
  14. 14. INFARCTION
  18. 18. ATROPHY
  19. 19.  MRI uses a strong magnetic field ( not x-ray) to create images of the body  Radiofrequency pulse(RF) are generated to interrogate the hydrogen atoms that make up the human body  Powerful computer process the returning RF signal to form medical images  As a rule MRI produces high resolution images in multiple planes
  20. 20.  Depending on the coils and pulse sequence selected MRI examination can be tailored to yield the desired diagnostic information Pulse sequence: T1, T2,DW, STIR, etc……
  21. 21.  MRI is used extensively for the study of blood vessel flow dynamics , 3D volume rendering and stereotactic surgical guidance
  22. 22.  Stroke  Infection / Inflammation  Tumour  Multiple sclerosis  Dementia  Post trauma  Metabolic disorder  Congenital disorder  Internal auditory canal pathology  Nerve palsy  Spinal cord lesion
  23. 23.  Abdomen/ Pelvis  Musculoskeletal tissue  Cardiac__ Ischaemia, Tumour ,Infiltrative CCM Vascular study  Obstetrics__ Fetal anomaly esp cerebral anomaly no risk of radiation
  24. 24.  Pacemaker, metalic body, implant, aneurysmal repair etc
  25. 25.  No known side effect
  26. 26.  Research make use of cutting edge technologies to visualize not only anatomical images but also early changes that occur in brain function before there is any visible abnormality in structural imaging eg. Functional MRI include diffusion perfusion and task activation research pulse sequence
  29. 29. BACKACHE
  30. 30. DIGITAL SUBSTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHY  It uses X-rays and injected contrast media to demonstrate the arteries and vein in real time .  It is NEUROANGIOGRAPHY when technique is applied to the vessel in brain  To see the blood vessel clearer DSA uses computers to remove / substract bone and other structures so that blood vessels stand out
  31. 31.  To study the architecture of blood vessels  Detecting and diagnosing vascular anomaly  Bleeding in brain and spinal cord  Narrowing / spasm of blood vessel  Stroke /Paralysis/ Hemiplegia  Mass
  32. 32. RENAL
  33. 33. CARDIAC
  34. 34.  Nuclear Medicine uses very small amount of radioactive material called Radiopharmaceuticals   Isotopes are specific for the part, injected or given orally  Isotopes are distributed throughout the blood stream and are attracted to specific organs/ tissue
  35. 35.  Isotope in the tissue emit gamma radiation which is detected and counted by gamma camera  The processed data over time provides functional and anatomical information about the part being imaged
  36. 36.  BRAIN SPECT__ single photon emission tomography for cerebral ischaemia, epilepsy  MIBI HEART PERFUSION SCAN__For Ischaemic heart disease  BONE SCAN__ For cancer, stress Fracture  THYROID UPTAKE SCAN__ For Thyroid nodule  V/Q SCAN__ For Pulmonary embolism
  37. 37. SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY  Mapping of Dopamine transport system in movement disorder like Parkinsonism  Specific tracer working at neuromuscular junction
  38. 38.  It is expensive  Positron tracer like carbon, nitrogen , oxygen are used for focal brain metabolism  Main use in ONCOLOGY
  39. 39. THYROID
  40. 40. BONE
  41. 41. SPECT
  42. 42.  Neonatal head for__Big head/Hydrocephalus Hypoxia Haemorrhage Birth trauma Subdural Haematoma Fits Congenital anomaly
  44. 44.  It is the technique used to treat blood vessel disease, tumour , clot/ thrombus etc in the brain and spinal canal  Procedure is like angiography and then pushing the therapeutic agent like Thrombolytic agent in case of Infarction
  45. 45.   Dr Rekha Khare