WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE CHALE -
Reyner CASTILLO TACORA
Master in Agricola Engineering, Mention in Water Resources Management
This research was carried out between March 2001 and November 2002 in the Chale -
Paucarcolla micro-watershed, geographically located at the coordinates longitude 70°
05' 30" West, latitude 15° 43' 55" South, at an altitude of 3,822 to 4,107 m.a.s.l., in order
to carry out a study of the Chale - Paucarcolla micro-watershed. m, in order to carry out
the diagnosis to evaluate the problems of use and management of water resources in
the Chale micro-watershed; for which meteorological data and cartographic information
were collected, as well as the hydrological study was conducted using the Temez, FLFREQ
models, evapotranspiration, historical precipitation and maximum infiltration were
determined, as well as the average annual precipitation; Similarly, the time of
concentration was established; the maximum intensity of precipitation was also
automated; the volume of runoff was stipulated; the water balance was determined; for
the strategic analysis, the SWOT method was used, resulting in the evaluation of the
water sources; the Chale River is irregular, intermittent, sinuous with an average slope
of 0. There are also 07 springs with a yield of 0.30 to 0.40 liters/second of water
availability. The water balance starts from May to December, when there is a periodic
decrease in water reserves, with the critical months being August to December; during
the months of January to April the aquifers are recharged due to the rainy season. The
use of water resources in the Chale micro-watershed has not been implemented due to
the lack of community-institution interaction; therefore, the projects undertaken do not
have the necessary follow-up and local empowerment to ensure the self-sustainability
of the proposals developed. Likewise, it is intended only for human consumption, in the
same way it should be managed before the projects of social good, irrigation and
conservation infrastructures for an integral sustainable development.
KEYWORDS: Management plan, water resources.
The altiplano Puneño is characterized by its agricultural and livestock economic activity,
therefore the available water resources are abundant, but not always well distributed. It
is therefore necessary to distribute them better in time as well as in space, mainly to
preserve them by planning the optimization of our water resource utilization systems;
for this, the water potential of the basin must be evaluated, also to observe the
hydrological phenomena of the micro-basin under study, based on data such as records,
observations; to elaborate comprehensive studies to characterize its behavior with the
objective of leading to a good management of water resource distribution.
The present work is a typical study of water resource utilization with the purpose of
evaluating and rationalizing water management, both in quantity and quality in the
microbasin, with the purpose of integrating the planned development of the rational
exploitation of the water resource.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Place of study
The present study was carried out in the Chale - Paucarcolla micro-watershed, province
and region of Puno, geographically located at longitude 70° 05' 30" West, latitude 15°
43' 55" South, at an altitude of 3,822 to 4,107 m.a.s.l., with an area of 1,911 hectares.
m, with an area of 1,911 Hectares; meteorological information has been compiled from
historical series of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, hours of sunshine from
the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology, as well as cartographic information
from the Land Titling and Cadastre project of the Ministry of Agriculture on a scale of
1/25000. The use as well as the rational use of the water resource will be achieved
through the hydrological study with the mathematical model Temez precipitation -
contribution knowing the parameters: the surface of the basin, the evapotranspiration,
historical precipitation and maximum infiltration; likewise the annual average
precipitation was determined by the method of the isohyets locating the meteorological
stations with their values of precipitation; in the same way, the time of concentration
was established with the equation of the U.S. Corps of Engineers. Corps of Engineers;
the maximum intensity of precipitation was also automated using the equation
calibrated by the Irrigation and Drainage Program; in turn, the analysis of maximum
floods was systematized with the FLFREQ model that used data: historical precipitation;
likewise, the maximum design flow was calculated using the Howard Cook method with:
geomorphological characteristics, soil infiltration, vegetation cover, basin area likewise,
the runoff volume was stipulated by the Cypress method is related to precipitation,
infiltration and soil hydrological group; also the potential evapotranspiration was
determined by applying the Hargreaves formula based on the average temperature the
The water balance was carried out with hydrological data: effective precipitation,
potential evapotranspiration, infiltration, net demand, water outflow with the purpose
of supplying the consumption demand with the availability of water, thus preventing it
directly from rainfall or being available from springs or other sources.
For the evaluation of in-situ infiltration, a set of infiltration cylinders was used to
determine the basic infiltration rate. Strategic planning was carried out based on the
analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, taking decisions on its
future directions, i.e. its mission, programs, action strategies and strategic goals for a
given period. In the management of the micro-watershed, a certain balance between
man and nature will be proposed, promoting the use and conservation of water
resources, leading to the good use of space and proposing projects for the development
of the stakeholders' environment.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The Chale micro-watershed has moderately steep slopes of 13.12% with scarce
vegetation cover, it is moderately regular and simultaneously covers intense rains, it is
subject to sudden floods, the meteorological information estimates the total average
annual precipitation at 660.8 millimeters, the average monthly temperature oscillates
between 21. During the dry season the temperature increases considerably in the
months of August, September and October with 10.71, 10.50 and 10.30 respectively; the
lowest months are recorded in December (4.29), January (4.30) and February (3.88), this
variation is explained by the significant change in climate. The potential
evapotranspiration was 1,353.30 millimeters/year, with a higher evapotranspiration in
the months of December, January with 142.6 and 141.1 millimeters, the minimums are
in the months of June 75.1 and July 79.0 millimeters. In the hydrological evaluation, the
average precipitation in the upper part is 600 millimeters in the middle part is 650, lower
part varies from 575 millimeters, this variation makes a total average rainfall of 608.84
millimeters in the entire microbasin; the time of concentration is 153.60 minutes, the
intensity resulted 20. 16 millimeters/hour, design flow 12.80 cubic meters/second, the
watershed is 4,627.36 cubic meters/year of water; the recharge to the subsoil was
Sector N° I Cum (mm) Ii (mm/hr) Ib (mm/hr) Textura de Suelo
Sector Chale I - 1 2.392 T 118.9 to 50.84 Franco limoso arenoso
Sector Titily I - 2 0.545 T 28.51 to 21.76 arcilloso limoso
Sector Alalaya I - 3 2.923 T 167.5 to 60.93 franco arenoso
1.95 T 104.9 to 44.51
assessed by performing the infiltration test in 03 sectors of the micro-watershed,
resulting in a slow, regular, almost high infiltration rate.
In the evaluation of the water sources, the Chale River is irregular, intermittent, winding
with an average slope of 0.95%, there are also 07 springs with a yield of 0.30 to 0.40
liters/second of water availability, the gauging was carried out during the dry season with
an average monthly flow of 3,162.24 cubic meters/month.
Flow measurement (volumetric method)
According to ONERN - 1985, the depth of the water level varies from 3 to 7 meters during
the low water season, and its exploitation regime is permanent; there are also 8.0
hectares of wetlands located along the river where the water table is high throughout
the year. Water demand for domestic use is estimated at 0.734 liters/second, daily
livestock demand is 11.31 cubic meters/second and agricultural demand for the 10
hectares is 2.55 liters/second from October to December. The water balance starts in
May through December with a periodic decrease in water reserves, with the critical
months being August through December.
The availability of the annual volume is approximately 56,946.24 cubic meters of water,
with the month of greatest supply being March 6,963.84 cubic meters, the annual
ENE FEB MAR ABR MAY JUN JUL AGO SEP OCT NOV DIC
PRECIPITACION MENSUAL DEMANDA HIDRICA
NOMBRE DE LA
A, Titily I 5 1 Litro 4.40 seg. 0.23
B, Titily II 5 1 Litro 21.20 seg. 0.05
C, Titily III 5 1 Litro 15.00 seg. 0.06
D, Alccamarini 5 1 Litro 14.50 seg. 0.07
E, Loripunco 5 1 Litro 2.60 seg. 0.40
F, Loripunco 5 1 Litro 8.80 seg. 0.11
G, Unu huaycco 5 1 Litro 3.60 seg. 0.30
TOTAL CAUDAL EN LA MICROCUENCA CHALE
demand is 13,545.60 cubic meters, with the months of greatest demand being October
to December with 1,249.80 cubic meters.
According to the micro-watershed diagnosis, there is an irrigation infrastructure of 2.0
hectares in abandonment, the inhabitants consume water through artesian wells, own
plots of land, and depend on agricultural and livestock production.
Agriculture depends on the hydrological cycle, which is why the guidelines were analyzed
with Threats - Opportunities, Weaknesses - Strengths; resulting in the organization of
communities, manage financing for productive projects as well as conservation, for
sustainable integrated development endorsed by Law No. 29338 Law of Water Resources
and Land Titling Law, likewise, with the water resource it is proposed to make an
approach to irrigation system projects providing water through schedules; on the other
hand have been delimited in a map areas that require practices at the level of slopes
with slopes of 13. 20% to 25.0% with projects of rehabilitation of terraces, control of
gullies in the streams, infiltration ditch in the upper parts; to mitigate in the management
of irrigation and conservation due to erosion, as well as the risk of salinization in the
lower part of the micro-watershed.
The economic evaluation resulted clearly to the productive development in the micro-
watershed, whose benefits are the irrigation system and conservation projects: the NPV
was feasible, IRR resulting in an acceptable internal rate of return, cost-benefit was
The Chale micro-watershed has irrigation infrastructure for 2.0 hectares, which does not
use water resources, due to the lack of community-institutional interaction that limits
the active participation of the population in the processes of use, management and
preservation of water resources, therefore the projects undertaken do not have the
necessary follow-up and local empowerment to ensure the self-sustainability of the
Likewise, there are 1.22 liters/second of water and groundwater resources that flow in
the Chale micro-watershed for human consumption only, however, despite the
importance of this resource for the communities, there is no rational use to ensure the
welfare of the population, so it should be managed before the institutions with projects
of social welfare, irrigation infrastructure and conservation for sustainable integrated
This research would not have been possible without the participation and advice of
Engineer Clenner Guido Madariaga Hancco.
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