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An assumption about a
person because they are
female or male.
contributes to gender
inequality because what we
believe about women and
men influences how we act
Women And Negative Stereotypes:
Various cultural images of women:-
Pativrata- Unconditional Devotion to husband,
Glorified Motherhood, Bharat Mata Image.
Women in Advertisement:-
-Women are shown in advertising as always
young and attractive.
-They are frequently depicted
as sexual objects.
Sex Stereotyping in the Media:
Consequences of Negative Stereotype and
sexism for the individual:
What Is Violence?
Any act of gender-based violence
that results in, or is likely to result
in, physical, sexual or
psychological harm or suffering
to women, including threats of
such acts, coercion, or arbitrary
deprivations of liberty, whether
occurring in public or private life.
Violence against women is often a cycle of abuse that
manifests itself in many forms throughout their lives.
Phase Type of violence
1. Pre-birth Sex-selective abortion; effects of battering during pregnancy on
2. Infancy Female infanticide; physical, sexual and psychological abuse.
3. Girlhood Child marriage: female genital mutilation; physical sexual and
psychological abuse; incest; and child prostitution and
4. Adolescence Dating and courtship violence and Adulthood (acid throwing and
date rape) economically coerced sex ( e.g. school girls having
sex with "sugar daddies" in return for school fees); incest;
sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; forced
prostitution and pornography; trafficking in women; partner
Violence; marital rape; dowry abuse and murders; partner
homicide; psychological abuse; abuse of women with
disabilities; forced pregnancy.
5. Elderly Forced "suicide" or homicide of widows for economic reasons,
sexual, physical and psychological abuse.
Forms of gender based violence
• UN Secretary General’s Report (2006) identifies the
following forms of violence against women
Female genital mutilation Domestic violence
Forced pregnancy Harmful practices
Forced sterilization Maltreatment of widows
Female infanticide Marital rape
Femicide So-called ‘honor’ crimes
Sexual harassment Dowry-related violence
Sexual violence Acid throwing
Sexual violence in situations of
Stalking Forced marriage
Partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs, for non-medical reasons.
Female Genital Multilation
Partial or complete removal of the external female
genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs, for
Women are put to death at the hands of their own
family members because they are thought to have
dishonored the family.
The killing of a wife by her in-laws if the wife’s
parents fail to pay additional dowry.
They appear to have little in common
battered women experience physical
and psychological violence
Women who are sexually harassed may
experience physical violence.
Rape is a crime of violence, not sexual
Causes Of VAW
• Women are supposed to have less power in
public spaces than men.
• Women and girls are seen as a different and
• Masculinity defined at the women’s expense.
• Concept of husband As GOD.
• Sanctity of marriage not to be broken.
• Son preference.
• Daughter’s right to live in her father’s place is
limited to live till she is married.
Women laws in India:-
1. Constitution of India 1950
2. Right to elementary education
3. Family Laws
4. Labour Laws
5. Human Rights and Women Legal Aid
6. Domestic Violence Act 2005
7. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act 1956
8. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971
9. Hindu Succession Act 1956
10. Special Marriage Act 1955
11. Child Marriage Act 1929
12. Hindu’s Widow Remarriage Act 1865
-Laws are not inforced
-Culture, customs, traditions take precedence over laws.
-Women who speakout are considered bad.
- Lack of Legal awareness and Education.
•Male gender bias
Obstacles to Making A Gender Sensitive Organisation
There is insufficient awareness among People; gender
issues are still widely understood as women’s issues only.
Power relations between men and women in our own
Society are unequal in many ways.
We need to ‘sell’ the idea of gender in our Society via
dialogue rather than antagonizing or mystifying.
It is also important to emphasize the opportunities for
change rather than concentrating only on finding and
What should be done-
Strategies for-Prevention & control
-Gender Equality among All
-Change The Cultural mindset about women
-Support to victim
-Women police cell, help lines, NGOs
- Awareness, Laws & Govt Involvement
What can I do?
-Empowerment of Girls
-Evaluate our Culture
-Support the organization working in
favor of violation of a girl
-Fund Donation to NGOs
-Encourage Local Law Enforcement
Strategies for improving gender equality and
• Women empowering women:
• Engaging boys and men:
GENDER EQUALITY MUST BECOME LIVID
On the platform of equality together we can
achieve the common goals of organization
not merely with legal changes but definitely
with attitudinal changes.