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Contemperory managment total to be sent 2018 raafat

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Basics of management

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Contemperory managment total to be sent 2018 raafat

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Contemporary Management by Dr.Raafat Youssef Shehata
  2. 2. Table of contents • Chapter 1:Introduction to contemporary management • Chapter 2: Coaching • Chapter 3:Decision making • Chapter 4:Interviewing skills • Chapter 5: Organizational behavior • Chapter 6: Motivation • Chapter 7: Leadership
  3. 3. 3 Basic Concepts of Management
  4. 4. Who Are Managers? Manager Someone who works with and through other people by coordinating and integrating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals
  5. 5. Classifying Managers
  6. 6. Management Functions of Management PLOCS 1. Planning 2. Leading 3. Organizing 4. Controlling 5. Staffing
  7. 7. Span of Control -Number of employees who report to a supervisor -Traditional view = 7 subordinates per manager -Organizations today = 30+ subordinates
  8. 8. • Span of Control used in an organization determines whether the structure is tall or flat • Tall structure have a narrow span and more levels • Flat structure has a wide span and fewer levels • The trend has been toward wider spans of control Tall versus Flat Structure
  9. 9. Span of control: Tall vs. Flat Organizations Structure Concepts
  10. 10. • Line Authority - management with formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates • Staff Authority - granted to staff specialists in their area of expertise Line and Staff Authority
  11. 11. Centralization and Decentralization • Centralization ● The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. • Decentralization ● The degree to which decision making is spread throughout the organization.
  12. 12. 1. CONCEPTUAL AND DECISION SKILLS Refer to the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its parts. 2. Human skills Involve the ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member. 3. TECHNICAL SKILLS The ability to perform a specialized task that involves a certain method or process. Management Skills
  13. 13. Skills Needed at Different Management Levels
  14. 14. Chapter 2: Coaching
  15. 15. What is Coaching? It is an opportunity to contribute to another person’s development
  16. 16. "Helping people to develop and perform to their full potential". What is Coaching?
  17. 17. Coaching, Counseling, Training • Training: Structured process to provide knowledge and teach skills. • Counseling: Problem solving directed at specific issues affecting performance. • Coaching: An on going process. Enables learning and development.
  18. 18. • Inform • Teach • Guide • Recognize Purposes of Coaching
  19. 19. Purposes of Coaching (cont.) • Motivate • Assist • Develop • Empower
  20. 20. EFFECTIVE COACHING IS SPECIFIC • What is done well and what needs improvement • Required skills and knowledge • Standards of good performance • Significance of the job • Corrective action
  21. 21. EFFECTIVE COACHING IS INTERACTIVE • Discuss rather than lecture or give orders • Ask questions • Listen to what the employee has to say • Pay attention to body-language, too
  22. 22. A coach helps his people mentally by arming them with the skills, knowledge and strategies to help them be successful.
  23. 23. • In a recent, they found that 83% of senior executives believed that human capital is the key to maintaining an edge over competitors. study conducted by the management consulting firm KPMG
  24. 24. Wrong Reasons for Coaching • Power • Fulfill their own agenda
  25. 25. Right Reasons for Coaching • Molding a group of individuals into a team • Be part of the game – love of the sport • Pass on knowledge • Enjoyment of teaching players to play better and help them develop • The thrill and excitement of sport • Help young players have fun • Want to share the experience with your kids • Nothing kills a team’s spirit faster than an apathetic coach • Leadership is inspiring people to do their best
  26. 26. Great Coaches Are Teachers • Teaching them the skills • Teaching them how to play within the team concept • Teaching them how to make good decisions • Teaching them not to be afraid to fail • Teaching them character values • Teaching them to be successful as players and people
  27. 27. Challenges in Coaching
  28. 28. You get what you expect • What leaders expect from their subordinates and how leaders treat their subordinates usually determines their performance. • Subordinates, more often than not, appear to do what they are expected to do.
  29. 29. Where to coach? Where; to create opportunities for coaching: • Office coaching. • Field coaching. • Comfort and privacy must be ensured, and the atmosphere should be non-threatening
  30. 30. Effective coaching needs trust
  31. 31. What is Trust? Willingness to have an unguarded interaction Coach Coachee
  32. 32. Feedback information about reactions to a product, a person's performance of a task, etc. which is used as a basis for improvement.
  33. 33. Giving Feedback: Common Mistakes • Monologue rather than a dialog • Thinking that a good coach always has to find something wrong • “Do it my way” solution (subjective standard) • Aggressive/threatening — challenging the individual not the behavior • Not celebrating small increments of progress toward goal • Difficulty (sugar-coating or avoiding) sharing hard messages • Too general, not actionable • Failure to focus, feedback on too many behaviors • Jumping from point to point without closure
  34. 34. Giving feedback • Prepare what you want to say • Describe their behaviour – give examples • Tell them the impact it has on you • Tell them what you would like them to do in future • Check understanding • Listen • Be prepared to move on
  35. 35. The Sandwich Technique The Feedback process: 1.Give balanced feedback starting with positives 2.Give feedback at the appropriate time 3.Share The Problem 4.Criticize the performance not the performer. 5.Give feedback on thing that can be changed 6.Be specific 7.Check to ensure understanding.
  36. 36. Chapter 3:Decision Making
  37. 37. Making choices from among two or more alternatives Decision Making
  38. 38. A systematic approach to decision making process 1- Identification of a problem/opportunity 2- Identification of decision criteria 3- Allocating weights to criteria 4- Development of alternatives 5- Analysis of alternatives 6- Selection of an alternative 7- Implementation of the alternative 8- Evaluation of decision effectiveness
  39. 39. Certainty, Risk, Uncertainty, Ambiguity • Certainty ● all the information is fully available • Risk ● decision has clear goals ● information is available ● future outcomes are subject to chance • Uncertainty ● managers know which goals they wish to achieve ● information is incomplete ● may need to develop creative alternatives • Ambiguity ● goals to be achieved or the problem to be solved is unclear ● alternatives are difficult to define ● information about outcomes is unavailable
  40. 40. * 40 Conditions that Affect the Possibility of Decision Failure Organizational Problem Problem Solution Low HighPossibility of Failure Certainty Risk Uncertainty Ambiguity Programmed Decisions Nonprogrammed Decisions
  41. 41. Classification of decisions
  42. 42. • Programmed decisions are routine decisions, made by lower-level personnel, that rely on predetermined courses of action • Non-programmed decisions are decisions for which there are no ready-made solutions. The decision maker confronts a unique situation in which the solutions are novel Strategic decisions are non-programmed decisions that have important long-term implications for the organization and are made by coalitions of high-level executives Programmed vs. Non-programmed
  43. 43. Programmed vs. Non-programmed Programmed Non-programmed Type of task Simple, routine Complex, creative Reliance on organizational policies Guidance from past decisions No guidance form past decisions Typical decision maker Lower level Upper level
  44. 44. Problems and Decisions • Structured Problems ● Involve goals that clear. ● Are familiar (have occurred before). ● Are easily and completely defined—information about the problem is available and complete. • Programmed Decision ● A repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach.
  45. 45. Problems and Decisions • Unstructured Problems ● Problems that are new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete. ● Problems that will require custom-made solutions. • Non-programmed Decisions ● Decisions that are unique and nonrecurring. ● Decisions that generate unique responses.
  46. 46. Rational decision making -The problem is clear -A single well defined goal is to be achieved -All alternatives and consequences are known -Preferences are clear -Preferences are constant and stable -No time or cost constraints
  47. 47. Intuitive decision making A subconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and accumulated judgment
  48. 48. Intuition 1-Experience based decisions: - Making decisions based on their past experiences 2-Affect-initiated decisions: -Making decisions based on emotions
  49. 49. 3-Cognitive-based decisions: -Making decisions based on knowledge &training 4-Subconscious mental processing : -Making decisions from subconscious mind Intuition
  50. 50. When is Intuition Used? 1-When a high level of uncertainty exists 2-When there is little precedent to draw on 3-When variables are less scientifically predictable 4-When “facts” are limited 5-When facts don’t clearly point the way
  51. 51. When is Intuition Used? 6-When analytical data are of little use 7-When there are several plausible alternative solutions from which to choose 8-When time is limited and there is pressure to come up with the right decision
  52. 52. Escalation of Commitment The tendency for individuals to continue to support previously unsuccessful courses of action because they have sunk costs invested in them Escalation of Commitment
  53. 53. Escalation of commitment • An increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been wrong • This is because they do not want to admit that their initial decisions have been wrong
  54. 54. Reasons why people have difficulty in making decisions -Fear of failing -Fear of success/believing that others will expect always expect perfection following a success -Unable to set priorities/don’t know what to do first -Not knowing where to get the information needed to help with the decision -Hoping someone else will decide
  55. 55. ● -Having little experience in making decisions and feeling overwhelmed ● -Not being willing to sacrifice immediate comfort for the long-term gain ● -Fear that others will disapprove of the decision ● -Believing decisions won’t really matter, other circumstances will ultimately dictate the outcome Reasons why people have difficulty in making decisions
  56. 56. Decision quality 1. Know your biases 1. Do you do enough analysis? 1. Are you hesitant to make a decision? 1. Sleep on it 1. Use others to help 1. Study decision makers
  57. 57. Common Decision-Making Errors and Biases
  58. 58. Overconfidence Bias -Holding unrealistically positive views of one’s self and one’s performance. -Individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability
  59. 59. Immediate Gratification Bias Choosing alternatives that offer immediate rewards and that to avoid immediate costs.
  60. 60. Anchoring Effect Fixating on initial information and ignoring subsequent information.
  61. 61. Selective Perception Selecting organizing and interpreting events based on the decision maker’s biased perceptions.
  62. 62. Confirmation Bias -It is a type of selective perception. -Seeking out information that reaffirms past choices and discounting contradictory information.
  63. 63. Framing Bias Selecting and highlighting certain aspects of a situation while ignoring other aspects.
  64. 64. Availability Bias Tendency for people to base judgments on information that is readily available
  65. 65. Self-Serving Bias -Taking quick credit for successes and blaming outside factors for failures -Korean managers found that, contrary to the self- serving bias, they tended to accept responsibility for group failure
  66. 66. Contrast Effects • We do not evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered. • For example, an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule
  67. 67. Stereotyping • Stereotyping—judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. • In organizations, we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, and even weight.
  68. 68. Halo Effect • The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic • This phenomenon frequently occurs when students appraise their classroom instructor.
  69. 69. -Conscientiousness may effect escalation of commitment -Achievement strivers are likely to increase Commitment -Compliant people are less likely to have this bias Personality
  70. 70. High self-esteem people are susceptible to self- serving bias Self-Esteem
  71. 71. Techniques to improve decision making Improving Decision Making 1. The Delphi Technique 2. The Stepladder Technique 3. The Nominal Group Technique
  72. 72. Delphi technique: A systematic way of collecting and organizing the opinions of several experts into a single decision 1. Delphi technique
  73. 73. 1. Delphi technique
  74. 74. A technique for improving the quality of group decisions that minimizes the tendency for group members to be unwilling to present their ideas by adding new members to a group one at a time and requiring each to present his or her ideas independently to a group that already has discussed the problem at hand 2. Stepladder technique
  75. 75. 2. Stepladder technique
  76. 76. Nominal Group Technique: A technique for improving group decisions in which small groups of individuals systematically present and discuss their ideas before privately voting on their preferred solution. The most preferred solution is accepted as the group’s decision 3. Nominal Group Technique
  77. 77. 3. Nominal Group Technique
  78. 78. Group versus Individual Decision Making Criteria of Effectiveness Groups Individuals Accuracy ✓ Speed ✓ Creativity ✓ Degree of acceptance ✓
  79. 79. Chapter 4 Interviewing Candidates
  80. 80. What is an interview? An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiries.
  81. 81. We can classify selection interviews according to: a. How structured they are. b. Their content “the types of questions they contain”. c. How the firm administers the interviews.
  82. 82. Unstructured or nondirective interviews: it is an unstructured conversational style interview in which the interviewer pursues points of interest as they come up in response to questions. Structured or directive interviews: The interview follow a set sequence of questions. Semi-structured Interviews : How structured the interviews are:
  83. 83. Situational interview the interviewer asks a series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate would behave in a given situation. Behavioral interviews which is a series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate reacted to actual situations in the past. Interview content: Type of questions
  84. 84. 1-Introduction- Establishing Rapport 2-Information Exchange 3- Closing Stages of the interview
  85. 85. ● Begins with small talk or few casual questions or general icebreaking questions or general remarks. ● Purpose is to establish rapport and find a comfortable level of communication. 1-Establishing Rapport
  86. 86. Shifts from small talk to general information about candidate, organization and position. 2-Information Exchange
  87. 87. ● Stage to pull together loose ends ● May give the applicant the chance to ask questions ● Confirm the follow up method and thank the candidate. 3-Closing
  88. 88. The Interview Questions • Tell me about yourself? • Why did you leave your job? • What is your biggest weakness? • What is you biggest strength? • Why can you do the job? • What’s your great weakness? • Why you change job’s so frequently? • What is your biggest mistake in career? • How would your supervisor / friends describe you? • Tell me a story? • Tell me a joke? • What can you offer that others don’t? • What is your major accomplishments?
  89. 89. Why did you leave your job ? • Stay Positive • Show desire for growth opportunities. • Employers are looking for employees with good attitudes even when working in bad situations.
  90. 90. What is your biggest weakness ? • Why is he asking ? • Mention your weakness. • Discuss what you have done to overcome it. • Criteria of the chosen weakness: ● Real. ● Relatively harmless. ● Its influence is mainly personal and not official ● On going improvement ● Work-related.
  91. 91. What you should know about an organization • Potential advancements. • Atmosphere. • Benefits. • Bonuses. • Dress code. • Ethics and integrity. • Owners. • Flexible / rigid structure. • Org. goals. • Growth potential. • Training. • Turnover. • Company type • Main customers. • Company history. • Location. • Management philosophy. • Management structure. • Office politics. • Previous problems faced. • Product / services. • Profit / sales volume. • Reputation. • Research. • Relocation potential. • Size. • Stability. Keep them In your heart
  92. 92. Signs of interviwee stress 1. Sweating 2. Flushing 3. Increased blinking 4. Tremors 5. Hesitency 6. Irritability
  93. 93. Projective techniques
  94. 94. Projective techniques Projective techniques allow respondents to project their subjective or true opinions and beliefs onto other people or even objects.
  95. 95. Projective techniques 1- Word association test 2-Sentence completion test 3-Story completion 4-Picture completion 5-Thematic apperception test (TAT) 6-Third-person techniques
  96. 96. Gaining commitment -Because sales positions usually require skill at gaining commitment sales managers will want to see if the candidate has that skill or not -Be prepared to close the interview with some form of gaining commitment “I am very excited about this opportunity what is our next step ?”
  97. 97. Contrast Effects • We do not evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered. • For example, an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule
  98. 98. Stereotyping • Stereotyping—judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. • In organizations, we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, and even weight.
  99. 99. Halo Effect • The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic • This can lead either to a negative or a positive conclusions.
  100. 100. Feelings -If you like a candidate, you may attach attributes to them that don't actually exist. - Gut-feeling
  101. 101. Snap Judgments -Make quick decisions rather than gathering information during the interview and evaluating it afterwards.
  102. 102. Chapter 4 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations
  103. 103. 103 Organizational Behavior (OB) • Interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of: ✓ attitudes ✓ behavior ✓ performance
  104. 104. * 104 Attitudes • Cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way • Attitudes determine how people ● Perceive the work environment ● Interact with others ● Behave on the job
  105. 105. Attitude components Awareness Interest Desire Action
  106. 106. Indicators of good attitude • A friendly smile • good posture • talking in nice tone of voice • being interested in others • making complaints in appropriate ways at appropriate times • being respectful and courteous • being calm • doing a good job • handling anger appropriately.
  107. 107. Indicators of bad attitude • unhappy look on face • slumping in chair or while standing • constant complaining • encouraging others to have a bad attitude • losing your temper • doing a poor job • ignoring others.
  108. 108. Perception How people make sense out of the environment → Selecting → Organizing → Interpreting information
  109. 109. Perception = Sensation + Interpretation Defined as a process by which people select & interpret stimuli into a meaningful picture. “How we see the world around us” - Two individuals may be exposed to the same stimuli but recognize, select, organize and interpret them differently based on their own needs, values and expectations
  110. 110. Personality
  111. 111. 1) The ID operates on the pleasure principle. The ID is selfish and illogical. 2) The superego (which is the counterweight to the ID). It is a person’s conscience. a) It internalizes society’s rules. b) It works to prevent the ID from seeking selfish gratification. 3) The ego tries to balance these two opposing forces according to the reality principle. Freudian theory
  112. 112. The Big Five Extroversion - Introversion Emotional stability Agreeableness Openness to experienceConscientiousness Source: Adapted from T.A. Judge, D. Heller, and M.K. Mount, 2002. “Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology,87 (June), 530(12)
  113. 113. Leadership and Personality • There are 5 basic personality dimensions. ● Neuroticism – the experience of negative emotion ● Extraversion – interest in people and being in charge ● Openness – liking the new and different ● Agreeableness – going along to get along ● Conscientiousness - liking a structured and organized life
  114. 114. Leadership and Personality • The best predictor of long-term success is self-awareness of your personal style. ● Allows you to play to your personal strengths ● Know where you need some help and support • No one personality type is best – Different types are most likely to be successful in different kinds of organizations and in different types of jobs.
  115. 115. The Big Five Dimensions of Personality Sources: Greenberg. J. and Baron . R. “Behavior in Organization”
  116. 116. Emotional Intelligence (EI) An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.
  117. 117. Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence
  118. 118. 1-Self-awareness: knowing what you’re feeling
  119. 119. The Johari Window – a graphic model of aware-ness in international relationsKNOWNUNKNOWN UNKNOWNKNOWN 3 4 SELF Tell others Ask others OPEN 1 2 BLIND HIDDE N UNKN OWN O T H E R S Your objective is to make quadrant #1 as large as possible!
  120. 120. The open area is that part of our conscious self – our attitudes, behavior, motivation, values, way of life – of which we are aware and which is known to others. We move within this area with freedom. We are “open books”. Open quadrant
  121. 121. We are more rich and complex than that which we and others know, but from time to time something happens – is felt, read, heard, dreamed – something from our unconscious is revealed. Then we “know” what we have never “known” before. Unknown quadrant
  122. 122. There are things about ourselves which we do not know, but that others can see more clearly; or things we imagine to be true of ourselves for a variety of reasons but that others do not see at all. When others say what they see (feedback), in a supportive, responsible way, and we are able to hear it; in that way we are able to test the reality of who we are and are able to grow. Blind quadrant
  123. 123. Our hidden area cannot be known to others unless we disclose it. There is that which we freely keep within ourselves, and that which we retain out of fear. The degree to which we share ourselves with others (disclosure) is the degree to which we can be known. Hidden
  124. 124. 2- Self-management: managing emotions and impulses
  125. 125. Self management • A group of four-years old and five years old were offered a marshmallow, which the researcher placed in front of each child on the desk • Then, the children were told if they can wait a few minutes while the researcher ran an errand, they would be given 2 marshmallows • Some children were unable to resist the temptation of a marshmallow “right now” and ate theirs immediately • Others employed all sorts of techniques , from singing or talking to themselves to hiding under the desk , to resist the impulses and earn the reward of 2 marshmallows instead of one
  126. 126. Self management • Researchers then followed the children over a period of 20 years and found some interesting results. • As young men and women, the ones who had resisted the desire to eat the marshmallows revealed a much higher ability to handle stress and embrace difficult challenges • They also were more self confident, trustworthy, dependable and tenacious in pursuing goals • The children who developed techniques for self management early in life carried these with them into adulthood
  127. 127. 3-Self-motivation: Persisting despite setbacks and failures
  128. 128. 4-Empathy: sensing how others are feeling
  129. 129. 5-Social skills: handling the emotions of others
  130. 130. Motivation in organization
  131. 131. What Is Motivation? • It is the reason for behavior • Motivation: From the Latin verb movere (to move) • It is produced by a state of arousal or tension, which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need. Individuals strive consciously and subconsciously to reduce the tension through behavior they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus relieve of the stress they feel
  132. 132. "Never let yesterday use up today." Richard H. Nelson
  133. 133. Figure 7.1 Steps in the Motivational Cycle
  134. 134. • Conscious motives are motives we are aware of, the reasons for our behavior are clear, and these motives do not need to be aroused • Sometimes we are unaware of the reason why a particular behavior was undertaken; our motivation is unconscious Conscious vs. unconscious Motivation
  135. 135. • Intrinsic motivation is engaging in behavior for the pleasure of the behavior itself; the behavior is the reward • Extrinsic motivation is engaging in behavior for a reward that is independent of the activity Intrinsic vs. extrinsic Motivation
  136. 136. • Rationality implies people select goals based on totally objective • Emotion implies the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria, such as pride, fear, affection or status Rational v. emotional motivation
  137. 137. Learned or unlearned Motivation -Biological motives are programmed into our nature -They are unlearned -For instance no one had to teach you to be interested in eating or sex -Social motives are learned as a result of living in human society
  138. 138. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Maslow formulated a widely accepted theory of human motivation based on a universal hierarchy of needs • Holds that individuals seek to satisfy lower-level needs before higher-level needs emerge • The lowest level of chronically unsatisfied need serves to motivate behavior • When that need is satisfied, a new and higher need emerges, and so on…
  139. 139. Five basic needs (in order) ■ Physiological needs ■ Safety needs ■ Social needs ■ Egoistic needs ■ Self-actualization needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Physiological Needs (Food, water, air, shelter, sex) Safety and Security Needs (Protection, order, stability) Social Needs (affection, friendship, belonging) Ego Needs (Prestige, status, self esteem) Self- Actualizatio n (Self- fulfillment)
  140. 140. Motivation and personality • Self-Esteem ● The degree to which people like or dislike themselves
  141. 141. Motivation for high self esteem employees ● High self esteem • Believe in themselves and expect success. • Take more risks and use unconventional approaches. • Are more satisfied with their jobs than Low SEs. • They depend mainly on self motivation
  142. 142. Motivation for low self esteem employees ● Low self esteem • Are more susceptible to external influences. • Depend on positive evaluations from others. • Are more prone to conform than high SEs. • External motivation is very important for them to enhance their performance
  143. 143. Two Factor Motivation Theory
  144. 144. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factors Dissatisfiers • Salary • Job Security • Working Conditions • Status • Company Procedures • Quality of Technical Supervision Motivator Factors Satisfiers • Achievement • Recognition • Responsibility • Advancement • The work itself • The possibility of growth
  145. 145. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory • McClelland believed that needs are acquired from the culture. Three of these needs are: ● Need for achievement ● Need for affiliation ● Need for power • When a need is strong, it motivates person to use behavior leading to its satisfaction.
  146. 146. • People with high need for achievement pursue goals that are challenging yet attainable through hard work, ability and persistence • Goals that are too easy those anyone can reach offer no challenge and hold no interest because success would not be rewarding • Impossibly high goals and high risks are not pursed because they offer little chance of success and are considered waste of time People with high need for achievement
  147. 147. • They are motivated more by their fear of failure than by their hope and expectation of success • This is why they set either low goals which anyone can attain or impossibly high goals • After all who can fault a person for failing to reach a goal that is impossible for almost anyone ? People with low need for achievement
  148. 148. Need for achievement From theory to application • Managers can foster higher need for achievement if they give their employees responsibilities , teach them to think and act independently, stress excellence , persistence and independence and praise them sincerely for their accomplishments
  149. 149. Treating people fairly
  150. 150. Equity Theory The essence of equity theory is that employees compare their efforts and rewards with those of others in similar situations.
  151. 151. Change Procedures to Restore Equity 1. Changing inputs 2. Changing outcomes 3. Changing attitudes 4. Changing the reference person 5. Leaving the field
  152. 152. Expectancy Theory • Expectancy theory suggests that motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desiredrewards
  153. 153. Expectancy Theory
  154. 154. REINFORCEMENT PERSPECTIVE ON MOTIVATION • Reinforcement theory simply looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences. It focuses on changing or modifying employees’ on-the-job behavior through the appropriate use of immediate rewards and punishments.
  155. 155. Reinforcement Law of Effect Tendency to repeat behaviors which cause favorable consequences, and not to repeat behaviors which cause unfavorable consequences
  156. 156. Positive Reinforcement • A behavior is strengthened by the occurrence of pleasant consequences. ● A manager gives a subordinate a difficult assignment to save expenses. ● The employee exerts great effort and completes it on time . ● The manager reviews the work & the employee is given 25 % of the savings as a bonus.
  157. 157. Effective discipline and punishment The process of decreasing undesirable behavior by following it with undesirable consequences
  158. 158. Restructuring jobs
  159. 159. Job Rotation it is an approach to management development is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation.
  160. 160. Job enlargement It is the practice of giving employees more tasks to perform at the same level of responsibility and skill
  161. 161. Job enrichment (Delegation) It is the practice of giving employees more tasks to perform that require higher levels of responsibility and skill
  162. 162. Motivation by structuring jobs
  163. 163. Base rewards on job performance Rewarding employees based on any other factor rather than job performance is called discrimination
  164. 164. Other Motivational theories
  165. 165. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y • Outlines assumptions of human nature in his book: The Human Side of Enterprise • Divides assumptions into two categories: ● Theory X ● Theory Y
  166. 166. Theory X: A Pessimistic View • Assumes that people ● do not really want to work and must be closely supervised ● avoid responsibility ● have little or no ambition • Assumes rewards or punishments must be used
  167. 167. Theory X • Managers who operate under this theory believe ● workers are paid to do a good job ● management’s function is to supervise the work and correct employees if needed
  168. 168. Theory Y: An Optimistic View • Assumes work is as natural to people as play or rest • Assumes people are capable of self-direction and will learn and accept responsibility
  169. 169. Theory Y • Managers who operate under this theory believe ● people will become committed to organizational objectives if they are rewarded for doing so ● a healthy, mutually supportive work climate based on trust, openness, and respect will influence workers to give more of themselves
  170. 170. McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y Theory X • Employees are lazy • Lack ambition • Resistant to change • Interested in their own needs • Have to be coerced in order to work Theory Y • Employees are capable of self control • Work is pleasurable • Workers are not resistant to change • People seek and accept responsibility Poor management practices are the reason why people do not have a positive attitude towards work
  171. 171. Flex-time Program that permits employees to schedule their own hours of work
  172. 172. Motivating a diverse workforce through flexibility: • Men desire more autonomy than do women. • Women desire learning opportunities, flexible work schedules, and good interpersonal relations.
  173. 173. 10 Great ways to motivate employees 1. Personally thank employees for doing a good job one on one, in writing, or both. Do it timely, often, and sincerely. 2. Take the time to meet with and listen to employees—as much as they need or want. 3. Provide employees with specific and frequent feedback about their performance. Support them in improving performance.
  174. 174. 10 Great ways to motivate employees 4. Recognize, reward, and promote high performers; deal with low and marginal performers so that they improve or leave. 5. Provide information on how the company makes and loses money, upcoming products, and services and strategies for competing. Explain the employee’s role in the overall plan. 6. Involve employees in decisions, especially those decisions that affect them. Involvement equals commitment
  175. 175. 10 Great ways to motivate employees 7. Give employees a chance to grow and develop new skills; encourage them to be their best. Show them how you can help them meet their goals while achieving the organization’s goals. Create a partnership with each employee. 8. Provide employees with a sense of ownership in their work and their work environment. This ownership can be symbolic (e.g., business cards for all employees, whether they need them to do their jobs or not).
  176. 176. 10 Great ways to motivate employees 9. Strive to create a work environment that is open, trusting, and fun. Encourage new ideas, suggestions, and initiative. Learn from, rather than punish for, mistakes. 10. Celebrate successes—of the company, of the department, and of individuals. Take time for team- and morale-building meetings and activities. Be creative and fresh.
  177. 177. CONCLOSION What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us
  178. 178. Teamwork
  179. 179. 180 What is a Team? ❶Unit of 2 or more people ❷Interact or coordinate their work ❸To accomplish a specific goal
  180. 180. • Formal groups are created by an organization and are designed to direct members toward some important organizational goal ● Command groups are determined by the connections between individuals who are a formal part of the organization ● Task groups are formed around some specific task • Informal groups develop naturally among an organization’s personnel without any direction from the management of the organization within which they operate ● Interest group ● Friendship group Types of Groups
  181. 181. Types of Groups
  182. 182. Committed to shared goals What is the difference between A Team and A Group Committed to individual goals Waits for proceduresContributes to procedures Climate of competitionClimate of cooperation Careful and cautious with what they sayOpen and honest with each other Conflict easily escalatesConflict is constructive
  183. 183. 184 Formal Teams Vertical - composed of a manager and subordinates, sometimes called functional or command teams. Horizontal - composed of employees from the same hierarchical level but from different areas of expertise. Cross-functional team, task force or committee. Special-Purpose - created outside the formal organization for special projects and disband once project is completed. Fast-cycle teams.
  184. 184. Self-Directed Teams ❶ Employees with several skills and functions ❷ Given access to various resources ❸ Empowered with decision making authority
  185. 185. Teamwork and personality • People with a balance between competitive and cooperative goals can work in team • People with no cooperative goals do not believe in teamwork
  186. 186. Teamwork and culture It more common in the Asian cultures while is rare among American cultures
  187. 187. Criteria of group effectiveness • Fulfilment of task & organisation goals. • Satisfaction of group members.
  188. 188. Stages of Team Development
  189. 189. Forming stage
  190. 190. Storming stage
  191. 191. Conflict
  192. 192. Competition Collaboration Compromise Avoidance Accommodation Concern for Other ConcernforSelf Low cooperation High cooperation Low aggression / energy High aggression / energy Individual Conflict Styles
  193. 193. Causes of Team Conflict ✓ Scarce Resources ✓ Communication breakdown ✓ Personality clashes ✓ Goal differences
  194. 194. Avoidance (No one wins) • Advantages ● Allows time to think ● Helps you not to get too involved in the conflict • Disadvantages ● May demonstrate that you don’t care ● Gives impression that you’re not flexible ● Lets conflicts simmer/heat up rather than working through them
  195. 195. Competition (I win, you lose) • Advantages ● Useful when you need to make a quick, decisive action ● Useful when the goal is more important than the relationship • Disadvantages ● Can harm the relationship ● May encourage others to be passive- aggressive
  196. 196. Compromising (You give, I give) • Advantages ● Can accomplish important goals in relatively short time ● Appears reasonable to most parties • Disadvantages ● Can become an easy way out, when other solutions might work better (a sophisticated form of avoidance) ● May be seen as lose-lose
  197. 197. Accommodating (You win) • Advantages ● Useful when you find out you’ve been wrong ● You can give a little and gain a lot if the issue’s not important to you ● Allows harmony of relationship • Disadvantages ● Can be harmful to the relationship if one person always gives in, and the other always gets their way
  198. 198. Collaboration (We both win) • Advantages ● Generates new ideas ● Shows respect for the other party ● Gains commitment to the solution from both parties ● Affirms importance of relationship ● Builds team approach to conflict management ● Demonstrates that conflict can be productive • Disadvantages ● May not be worth the time and energy involved ● Can be manipulative
  199. 199. Dimensions of Conflict-Handling (B) Collaborati ng(E) Compromising (C) Avoiding (D) Accommodatin g (A) Competing Uncooperative AssertiveUnassertive Cooperative Cooperativeness Assertiveness Cooperativeness: degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other’s party concerns. Assertiveness : degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his own concerns. lose / lose lose / win win / lose win some / lose some win / win
  200. 200. Performing stage
  201. 201. 1.The level of work group cohesiveness 2.The performance goals set by the group 3.The degree of agreement between group performance goals and organizational performance goals. Factors which influence work groups performance
  202. 202. DELPHI TECHNIQUE • Used when members can not attend a meeting. • It is a method for gathering systematically written judgments from members using a set of questionnaire. • Members of the group may not know the other group members • It needs central coordinating mechanisms to manage the alteration, transmission and summarizing the questionnaire data.
  203. 203. Are Delphi Groups Effective? • Evidence indicates that Delphi groups can be more effective. • The average performance was higher for Delphi groups than for undisciplined groups both working on a comparable problem solving task. • Delphi groups eliminate the effects of dominant personalities on group decision making and the effects of perceived member status on group decision making. • E. mail systems and the World Wide Web create obvious advantages to the use of Delphi groups. • Delphi groups are quite different from nominal groups.
  204. 204. Social Loafing in groups • Members who do not perform their fair share of the group’s work. • They are practitioners of the fine art of social loafing because they cause average member effort and performance to decline as group size increases. Explanations for social loafing: 1) Equity of effort 2) Loss of personal responsibility (‘It’s a large group, no one will miss me) 3) Reduced effort caused by reward sharing (‘Everyone is paid the same, so why should I put in extra hours?’ 4) Coordination complexity in larger groups
  205. 205. Reduction of Social Loafing in Groups 1 Focus on the interesting and important aspects of the task. 2 Assure members that their contributions are identifiable . 3 Tell group members that they should not tolerate inadequate effort or performance from group members. 4 They should expect to have their performance evaluated. 5 Ensure that some portion of rewards received by group members is dependent on their performance.
  206. 206. Leading
  207. 207. Leaders Are Born, Not Made • Can anyone disagree that people like Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt were gifted political leaders? Or that Joan of Arc and George Patton were brilliant and courageous military leaders? Or that Henry Ford, Jack Welch, Steve Jobs, and Rupert Murdoch are gifted business leaders? As one reviewer of the literature put it, “Leaders are not like other people.” These leaders are great leaders because they have the right stuff—stuff the rest of us don’t have, or have in lesser quantities
  208. 208. Leadership ✓ The ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals. ✓ Leadership is dynamic and involves the use of power.
  209. 209. Influence is acquired through “ARATA” being: Admired Respected Appreciated Trusted Accepted
  210. 210. Leaders vs. Managers Leaders • Innovate • Develop • Inspire • Long-term view • Ask “what & why” • Originate • Challenge status quo • Do the right things Managers • Administer • Maintain • Control • Short-term view • Ask “how & when” • Imitate • Accept status quo • Do things right
  211. 211. What are the sources of power for a manager??
  212. 212. • Legitimate power is the power someone has because others recognize and accept his or her authority • Reward power is the power to control the rewards others receive • Coercive power is the capacity to control punishment • Information power is the power a person has by virtue of his or her access to valuable data or knowledge Position Power
  213. 213. • Rational persuasion is the power leaders have by virtue of the logical arguments and factual evidence they provide to support their arguments • Expert power is the power leaders have to the extent that others recognize their expert knowledge on a topic • Referent power is the power that individuals have because they are liked and admired by others • Charisma is the power someone has over others because of his or her engaging and magnetic personality Personal Power
  214. 214. Charismatic leadership Leaders who have the ability to inspire and motivate people to do more than they would normally do despite obstacles and personal sacrifice
  215. 215. Charismatic leaders • Charismatic leaders earn followers’ trust by being willing to incur great personal risk • According to a personal friend of the king family, Martin Luther King received death threats against himself and his family almost every day during the civil rights movement • By taking risks leaders enhance their emotional appeal to followers
  216. 216. Charismatic leaders • Passion & Enthusiasm! ● If you’re not passionate, why should we care? • Example: Martin Luther King. ● I have a dream… that one day this nation will rise up; live up to the true meaning to its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.
  217. 217. The black Hat of charisma • One characteristic of charisma noted by most researchers is that it can be a curse as well as a blessing • Because the basis of charisma is emotional rather than logical or rational, it is risky and potentially dangerous
  218. 218. The black Hat of charisma • One explanation for the distinction between charisma that results in positive outcomes and that which results in negative outcomes relates to the differences between personalized leaders and socialized leaders • Personalized behavior is based on caring about self while socialized behavior is based on valuing others
  219. 219. What is leadership style?
  220. 220. Centralized, Democratic, Directed Free, Dictatorial and Participative undecided and Autocratic undirected Leadership Styles Balancing among a number of styles will always support the management and supervisory systems
  221. 221. ➢Centralizes authority ➢Restrictive ➢Dictates work ➢Close supervision ➢Limits people participation Autocratic = Directive
  222. 222. Suitable if: ■ People need training ■ People in conflict ■ People challenge authority Autocratic = Directive
  223. 223. Democratic style ● A leader who involves employees in decision making, delegates authority, encourages participation in deciding work methods and goals, and uses feedback to coach employees ● A democratic-consultative leader seeks input and hears the concerns and issues of employees but makes the final decision him or herself ● A democratic-participative leader often allows employees to have a say in what’s decided
  224. 224. ■ Shares decisions ■ Builds morale ■ Coaches people ■ Avoids conflict ■ Cares for group ■ Friendly Democratic style
  225. 225. Suitable if: ■ People’s authority relations clear ■ People’s jobs are repetitive ■ People’s responsibility is clear Democratic style
  226. 226. ■ People have complete freedom ■ People decide ■ Leader in the shadow Laissez Faire = Delegating
  227. 227. Suitable if: ■ People are skilled ■ People are achievers ■ People are self motivated Laissez Faire = Delegating
  228. 228. Thank You