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Nutritional disorder are diseases that occur when a person's dietary intake does not contain the right amount of nutrients for healthy functioning, or when a person cannot correctly absorb nutrients from food. Nutritional disorders can be caused by undernutrition, over nutrition or an incorrect balance of nutrients.
NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS AND PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION
Prepared by : Rabia Khan Baber
Course Title : Biochemistry
TOPICS OF THE PRESENTATION
What is protein energy ?
What are the symptoms of protein energy malnutrition ?
What are the types of protein energy malnutrition ?
What is marasmus and kwashiorkor ?
What are its causes and risk factors ?
What is the difference between these two ?
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
What are nutritional disorders ?
What is malnutrition ?
What are the forms of malnutrition ?
Etiology of malnutrition
Symptoms of malnutrition
Risk factors of malnutrition
Nutritional disorders due to nutrients deficiency
Nutritional disorder are diseases that occur when a person's dietary
intake does not contain the right amount of nutrients for healthy
functioning, or when a person cannot correctly absorb nutrients from
food. Nutritional disorders can be caused by undernutrition, over
nutrition or an incorrect balance of nutrients.
Malnutrition is the impaired function that results from a prolonged
deficiency or excess of total energy or specific nutrients such as protein,
essential fatty acids, vitamins, or minerals. This condition can result
from fasting and anorexia nervosa, persistent vomiting or inability to
swallow; impaired digestion and intestinal malabsorption or chronic
illnesses that result in loss of appetite (e.g., cancer, AIDS). Malnutrition
also results from limited food availability.
RISK FACTORS OF MALNUTRITION
Older adults, especially when they are in the hospital or long-term
People who are socially isolated. For example, due to mobility issues,
health problems, or other factors
People recovering from or living with a serious illness or condition
Those who have difficulty absorbing nutrients
People with chronic eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia
SYMPTOMS OF NUTRITIONAL
DISORDERS AND MALNUTRITION
A lack of appetite or interest in food or drink
Tiredness and irritability
An inability to concentrate
Always feeling cold
Loss of fat, muscle mass and body tissue
A higher risk of getting sick and taking longer to heal
Longer healing time for wounds
A higher risk of complications after surgery
DISEASE (AND KEY NUTRIENT
SYMPTOMS FOODS RICH IN KEY NUTRIENT
Xerophthalmia (vitamin A)
Blindness from chronic eye infections,
poor growth, dryness and keratinization
of epithelial tissues
Liver, fortified milk, sweet potatoes,
spinach, greens, carrots, apricots
Rickets (vitamin D)
Weakened bones, bowed legs, other
Fortified milk, fish oils, sun exposure
Nerve degeneration, altered muscle
coordination, cardiovascular problems
Pork, whole and enriched grains, dried
beans, sunflower seeds
Pellagra (niacin) Diarrhea, skin inflammation, dementia
Mushrooms, bran, tuna, chicken, beef,
peanuts, whole and enriched grains
Scurvy (vitamin C)
Delayed wound healing, internal
bleeding, abnormal formation of bones
Citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli
Iron-deficiency anemia (iron)
Decreased work output, reduced
growth, increased health risk in
Meat, spinach, seafood, broccoli, peas,
bran, whole-grain and enriched breads
Enlarged thyroid gland, poor growth in
infancy and childhood, possible mental
Iodized salt, saltwater fish
Abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva
and cornea of the eye, with
inflammation and ridge formation,
typically associated with vitamin A
Rickets is a skeletal disorder that's
caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium
or phosphate. These nutrients are
important for the development of
strong, healthy bones. People with
rickets may have weak and soft bones,
stunted growth and in severe cases,
Beriberi is a disease caused by
a vitamin B-1 deficiency, also
known as thiamine deficiency.
It causes difficulty in walking,
loss of sensation in hands and
feet, loss of muscle function or
paralysis of the lower legs and
Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack
of the niacin (vitamin B3).
Pellagra is the "Disease Of The Three
Other features are ulcerations within
the mouth (glossitis), nausea.
vomiting, seizures and balance
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a
lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Early symptoms of deficiency
include weakness, feeling tired and
sore arms and legs. Without
treatment, decreased red blood cells,
gum disease, changes to hair, and
bleeding from the skin may occur.
Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia, a condition in which
blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen
to the body's tissues. As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to
Goitre is the swelling of
neck resulting from
enlargement of the thyroid
gland. Its most common
cause is deficiency of iodine
Obesity is a medical condition in
which excess body fat has
accumulated to the extent that it may
have an adverse effect on health. It is
defined by body mass index (BMI)
and further evaluated in terms of fat
distribution via the waist–hip ratio
and total cardiovascular risk factors.
Calories are units of energy your body needs to function. Your body
also needs a large amount of protein. Without enough protein, you
may not be able to easily heal injuries or wounds.
When you don’t consume enough nutrients, your body becomes
malnourished. One type of malnourishment is Protein-energy
Protein-energy malnutrition doesn’t occur due to short-term illnesses.
It’s more likely due to malnutrition over a long period.
SYMPTOM OF MALNUTRITION
Difficulty staying warm
A lower body temperature
A lack of emotion
Numbness or tingling of the
hands and feet
Marasmus occurs more often in young children and babies that causes
severe loss of muscles, tissues and fats of the body. It leads to
dehydration and weight loss. Starvation is a form of this disorder.
SYMPTOMS OF MARASMUS
RISK FACTORS OF MARASMUS
Inadequate food intake
Kwashiorkor occurs in people who have a severe protein deficiency.
Children who develop kwashiorkor are often older than children who
develop marasmus. Having a diet that’s mainly carbohydrates can lead
to this condition.
SYMPTOMS OF KWASHIOKOR
Edema, or puffy or swollen
appearance due to fluid retention
Bulging of the abdomen
An inability to grow or gain
MARASMUS SYMPTOMS KWASHIORKOR SYMPTOMS
Weight loss An inability to grow or gain weight
Edema, or swelling of the hands
Stomach shrinkage Stomach bulging
CAUSES OF MARASMUS AND
Lack of access to food
Living in poverty
Having an eating disorder
Lacking education about dietary needs
Taking medication that interferes with the absorption of nutrients
Having a medical condition that increases your body’s need for
Your doctor will first look at physical symptoms. They’ll also ask
questions about your access to food, any history of eating disorders,
and medications you’re taking. They may also ask about your current
mental state or mood.
They may do a skin test to determine if your immune system is
working correctly. They may take a stool sample to rule out other
issues related to diarrhea if diarrhea is a symptom. Your doctor may
also test your urine or your blood to help identify a nutrition
Both conditions are treatable by slowly increasing calorie intake
through several, small meals. Your doctor may add liquid protein
supplements if you have problems digesting food.
Doctors often recommend multivitamin supplements and may
prescribe medications to improve appetite. If the symptoms are severe,
hospitalization may be necessary.
NUTRIENTS AND THEIR QUANTITY/DAY
NUTRIENT QUANTITY PER DAY
Energy 8,700 kilojoules
Protein 50 grams
Fat 70 grams
Carbohydrates 310 grams
Sodium (salt) 2.3 grams
Dietary Fiber 30 grams