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NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS AND PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION

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Nutritional disorder are diseases that occur when a person's dietary intake does not contain the right amount of nutrients for healthy functioning, or when a person cannot correctly absorb nutrients from food. Nutritional disorders can be caused by undernutrition, over nutrition or an incorrect balance of nutrients.

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NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS AND PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION

  1. 1. NUTRITION Prepared by : Rabia Khan Baber Course Title : Biochemistry
  2. 2. TOPICS OF THE PRESENTATION Nutritional disorders What is protein energy ? What are the symptoms of protein energy malnutrition ? What are the types of protein energy malnutrition ? What is marasmus and kwashiorkor ? What are its causes and risk factors ? What is the difference between these two ? Diagnosis Treatment
  3. 3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES What are nutritional disorders ? What is malnutrition ? What are the forms of malnutrition ? Etiology of malnutrition Symptoms of malnutrition Risk factors of malnutrition Nutritional disorders due to nutrients deficiency
  4. 4. NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS AND MALNUTRITION
  5. 5. DEFINITION Nutritional disorder are diseases that occur when a person's dietary intake does not contain the right amount of nutrients for healthy functioning, or when a person cannot correctly absorb nutrients from food. Nutritional disorders can be caused by undernutrition, over nutrition or an incorrect balance of nutrients.
  6. 6. MALNUTRITION Malnutrition is the impaired function that results from a prolonged deficiency or excess of total energy or specific nutrients such as protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, or minerals. This condition can result from fasting and anorexia nervosa, persistent vomiting or inability to swallow; impaired digestion and intestinal malabsorption or chronic illnesses that result in loss of appetite (e.g., cancer, AIDS). Malnutrition also results from limited food availability.
  7. 7. FORMS OF MALNUTRITION Undernutrition  Marasmus Over nutrition  Obesity, Hypervitaminoses Specific nutrition Hypovitaminoses , Kwashiorkor Imbalance nutrition Electrolyte imbalance
  8. 8. MAIN NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS Obesity Starvation Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Vitamin deficiency Trace element deficiency
  9. 9. ETIOLOGY OF MALNUTRITION
  10. 10. RISK FACTORS OF MALNUTRITION Older adults, especially when they are in the hospital or long-term institutional care People who are socially isolated. For example, due to mobility issues, health problems, or other factors People recovering from or living with a serious illness or condition Those who have difficulty absorbing nutrients People with chronic eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia nervosa
  11. 11. SYMPTOMS OF NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS AND MALNUTRITION A lack of appetite or interest in food or drink Tiredness and irritability An inability to concentrate Always feeling cold Depression Loss of fat, muscle mass and body tissue A higher risk of getting sick and taking longer to heal Longer healing time for wounds A higher risk of complications after surgery
  12. 12. DISEASE (AND KEY NUTRIENT INVOLVED) SYMPTOMS FOODS RICH IN KEY NUTRIENT Xerophthalmia (vitamin A) Blindness from chronic eye infections, poor growth, dryness and keratinization of epithelial tissues Liver, fortified milk, sweet potatoes, spinach, greens, carrots, apricots Rickets (vitamin D) Weakened bones, bowed legs, other bone deformities Fortified milk, fish oils, sun exposure Beriberi (thiamin) Nerve degeneration, altered muscle coordination, cardiovascular problems Pork, whole and enriched grains, dried beans, sunflower seeds Pellagra (niacin) Diarrhea, skin inflammation, dementia Mushrooms, bran, tuna, chicken, beef, peanuts, whole and enriched grains Scurvy (vitamin C) Delayed wound healing, internal bleeding, abnormal formation of bones and teeth Citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli Iron-deficiency anemia (iron) Decreased work output, reduced growth, increased health risk in pregnancy Meat, spinach, seafood, broccoli, peas, bran, whole-grain and enriched breads Goitre (iodine) Enlarged thyroid gland, poor growth in infancy and childhood, possible mental retardation, cretinism Iodized salt, saltwater fish
  13. 13. XEROPHTHALMIA Abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, with inflammation and ridge formation, typically associated with vitamin A deficiency.
  14. 14. RICKETS Rickets is a skeletal disorder that's caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium or phosphate. These nutrients are important for the development of strong, healthy bones. People with rickets may have weak and soft bones, stunted growth and in severe cases, skeletal deformities.
  15. 15. BERI-BERI Beriberi is a disease caused by a vitamin B-1 deficiency, also known as thiamine deficiency. It causes difficulty in walking, loss of sensation in hands and feet, loss of muscle function or paralysis of the lower legs and mental confusion/speech difficulties.
  16. 16. PELLAGRA Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the niacin (vitamin B3). Pellagra is the "Disease Of The Three D's" 1. Diarrhea 2. Dermatitis 3. Dementia Other features are ulcerations within the mouth (glossitis), nausea. vomiting, seizures and balance disorder.
  17. 17. SCURVY Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Early symptoms of deficiency include weakness, feeling tired and sore arms and legs. Without treatment, decreased red blood cells, gum disease, changes to hair, and bleeding from the skin may occur.
  18. 18. IRON DEFICIENCYANEMIA Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia, a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues. As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron.
  19. 19. GOITRE Goitre is the swelling of neck resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland. Its most common cause is deficiency of iodine
  20. 20. OBESITY Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors.
  21. 21. PROTEIN-ENERGY MALNUTRITION
  22. 22. DEFINITION Calories are units of energy your body needs to function. Your body also needs a large amount of protein. Without enough protein, you may not be able to easily heal injuries or wounds. When you don’t consume enough nutrients, your body becomes malnourished. One type of malnourishment is Protein-energy Malnutrition. Protein-energy malnutrition doesn’t occur due to short-term illnesses. It’s more likely due to malnutrition over a long period.
  23. 23. SYMPTOM OF MALNUTRITION Fatigue Difficulty staying warm A lower body temperature Diarrhea Reduced appetite A lack of emotion Irritability Weakness Slower breathing Numbness or tingling of the hands and feet Dry skin Hair loss Bruises
  24. 24. TYPES OFPROTEIN-ENERGY MALNUTRITION 1. MARASMUS 2. KWASHIORKOR
  25. 25. MARASMUS Marasmus occurs more often in young children and babies that causes severe loss of muscles, tissues and fats of the body. It leads to dehydration and weight loss. Starvation is a form of this disorder.
  26. 26. SYMPTOMS OF MARASMUS Weight loss Muscle wasting Dehydration Chronic diarrhea Stomach shrinkage
  27. 27. RISK FACTORS OF MARASMUS Famine Chronic starvation Vitamins deficiency Inadequate food intake Adulterated water
  28. 28. KWASHIOKOR Kwashiorkor occurs in people who have a severe protein deficiency. Children who develop kwashiorkor are often older than children who develop marasmus. Having a diet that’s mainly carbohydrates can lead to this condition.
  29. 29. SYMPTOMS OF KWASHIOKOR Edema, or puffy or swollen appearance due to fluid retention Bulging of the abdomen An inability to grow or gain weight
  30. 30. MARASMUS SYMPTOMS KWASHIORKOR SYMPTOMS Weight loss An inability to grow or gain weight Dehydration Edema, or swelling of the hands and feet Stomach shrinkage Stomach bulging Diarrhea
  31. 31. CAUSES OF MARASMUS AND KWASHIOKOR Lack of access to food Living in poverty Having an eating disorder Lacking education about dietary needs Taking medication that interferes with the absorption of nutrients Having a medical condition that increases your body’s need for calories
  32. 32. DIAGNOSIS Your doctor will first look at physical symptoms. They’ll also ask questions about your access to food, any history of eating disorders, and medications you’re taking. They may also ask about your current mental state or mood. They may do a skin test to determine if your immune system is working correctly. They may take a stool sample to rule out other issues related to diarrhea if diarrhea is a symptom. Your doctor may also test your urine or your blood to help identify a nutrition deficiency.
  33. 33. TREATMENT Both conditions are treatable by slowly increasing calorie intake through several, small meals. Your doctor may add liquid protein supplements if you have problems digesting food. Doctors often recommend multivitamin supplements and may prescribe medications to improve appetite. If the symptoms are severe, hospitalization may be necessary.
  34. 34. NUTRIENTS AND THEIR QUANTITY/DAY NUTRIENT QUANTITY PER DAY Energy 8,700 kilojoules Protein 50 grams Fat 70 grams Carbohydrates 310 grams Sodium (salt) 2.3 grams Dietary Fiber 30 grams

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