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Automatic phase changer

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Automatic phase changer

  1. 1. AUTOMATIC PHASE CHANGER
  2. 2. Aim: The main aim of this system is to provide uninterruptable power supply for single phase loads even in the failure of one or two phases in a three phase system.
  3. 3. Introduction: If any one or two phases in a 3-phase supply interrupted/goes low and you want equipment to work on normal voltages then this circuit will give solution . This system is designed to monitor the presence of supply to the three phases and to display condition of each phase on an LCD.
  4. 4. Hardware Requirements: Power Supply 5V. Microcontroller AT89C51. Step Down Transformers. Comparators. Switching Devices. Other Hardware Components
  5. 5. Power supply to all sections Step down T/F Bridge Rectifier Filter Circuit Regulator Block Diagram of power supply: D 1 3 R 1 5 P U S H P A K T E C H N O L O G I E S D 1 6 C 1 1 D 1 5 V C C U 5 31 2 V O U TV I N GND C 1 2 P O W E R S U P P L Y < R e v C o d e > 3 P H A S E D R I V E S A F T Y S Y S T E M C u s t o m 2 2S a t u r d a y , M a r c h 1 3 , 2 0 1 0 T it le S iz e D o c u m e n t N u m b e r R e v D a t e : S h e e t o f P S T V IN D 1 4 C 1 3 G N D IN L E D 1
  6. 6. Relay Relay Relay Output Output Output Transformer1 (R-phase) Transformer2 (Y-phase) Transformer3 (B-phase) Rectifier & Filter circuit Rectifier & Filter circuit Rectifier & Filter circuit Comparator Comparator Comparator Relay Relay Relay Output Output Output Transformer1 (R-phase) Transformer2 (Y-phase) Transformer3 (B-phase) Rectifier & Filter circuit Rectifier & Filter circuit Rectifier & Filter circuit Comparator Comparator Comparator Transformer1 (R-phase) Transformer2 (Y-phase) Transformer3 (B-phase) Rectifier & Filter circuit Rectifier & Filter circuit Rectifier & Filter circuit Comparator Comparator Comparator Sensing Module:
  7. 7. Working: It monitors the presence of three phases and to display condition of each phase on an LCD. It monitors the voltage condition of each phase. If the voltage level of any phase is under the rated / specified voltage rating, immediately this phase is connected to a healthy phase thus, supplies to the load. The phase voltage is stepped down 230 V to 12 V, 300 mA.
  8. 8. These 12v is rectified through a rectifier circuit and filtered through a capacitor. The voltage at inverting terminal of Op-Amp is taken from voltage divider circuit of resistor R1 and preset resistor VR1, at non inverting terminal 5.1 V will be set through zener diode. When the line voltage is below 200 V, the voltage at the inverting terminal is less than the voltage at the non-inverting terminal. Thus the output of the operational amplifier now goes low.
  9. 9. As a result transistor conducts and output is fed to microcontroller and output microcontroller is fed to electromagnetic relay through a transistor. Consequently, the AC supply is shifted to absence phase and electrical appliances turn ON. Thus the appliances are protected against under- voltage.
  10. 10. Circuit Diagram: R 8 R 5 G N D I N P H A S E I N 2 R 1 8 L 3 - + U 23 2 6 7 1 4 5 D 6 R 9 Q 4 S W 3 1 2 R 1 V C C R 2 R L 3 C 7 D 1 1 R 1 7 R 1 2 - + U 33 2 6 7 1 4 5 D 7 C 2 R 1 1 R 7 S W 1 1 2 R 6 V C C V C C S W 4 1 2 P H A S E I N 1 R 1 0 Q 1 L S 1 3 5 4 1 2 C 1 Q 2 R L 1 Q 5 P H 1 P H A S E I N 3 P S T V I N R 4 P H 2 D 8 V C C R 3 T 2 15 6 48 C 6 D 9 L S 2 3 5 4 1 2 P U S H P A K T E C H N O L O G I E S C 4 Q 6 Q 3 D 3 D 2 V C C D 1 L 2 V C C V C C D 1 0 D 4 L S 3 3 5 4 1 2 C 3 - + U 13 2 6 7 1 4 5 C 5 D 1 2 L 1 D 5 V C C S E N S IN G M O D U L E < R e v C o d e > 3 P H A S E D R I V E S A F T Y S Y S T E M A 4 1 2S a t u r d a y , M a r c h 1 3 , 2 0 1 0 T it le S iz e D o c u m e n t N u m b e r R e v D a t e : S h e e t o f V C C R L 2 S W 2 1 2 N E U T R A L R 1 6 T 3 15 6 48 P H 3 T 1 15 6 48 Sensing Module
  11. 11. D 2 1 L E D 2 D 2 0 R L 3 D 1 9 S W 5 O K D 1 7 C O N T R O L M O D U L E < R e v C o d e > 3 P H A S E D R IV E S A F T Y S Y S T E M C u s t o m 2 2T u e s d a y , J u ly 1 9 , 2 0 1 1 T it le S iz e D o c u m e n t N u m b e r R e v D a t e : S h e e t o f R L 1 B Z 1 P O T R 1 3 3 1 2 V C C A P P L I A N C E P U S H P A K T E C H N O L O G I E S Y 1 U 4 A T 8 9 S 5 2 29 3 0 40 20 31 191 8 9 3 9 3 8 3 7 3 6 3 5 3 4 3 3 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 PSEN A L E VCC GND EA X1X 2 R S T P 0 . 0 / A D 0 P 0 . 1 / A D 1 P 0 . 2 / A D 2 P 0 . 3 / A D 3 P 0 . 4 / A D 4 P 0 . 5 / A D 5 P 0 . 6 / A D 6 P 0 . 7 / A D 7 P 1 . 0 / T 2 P 1 . 1 / T 2 E X P 1 . 2 P 1 . 3 P 1 . 4 P 1 . 5 / M O S I P 1 . 6 / M I S O P 1 . 7 / S C K P 2 . 0 / A 8 P 2 . 1 / A 9 P 2 . 2 / A 1 0 P 2 . 3 / A 1 1 P 2 . 4 / A 1 2 P 2 . 5 / A 1 3 P 2 . 6 / A 1 4 P 2 . 7 / A 1 5 P 3 . 0 / R X D P 3 . 1 / T X D P 3 . 2 / I N T 0 P 3 . 3 / I N T 1 P 3 . 4 / T 0 P 3 . 5 / T 1 P 3 . 6 / W R P 3 . 7 / R D C 8 L E D 1 P H 3 D 1 8 P H 2 R 2 2 C 1 0 L E D 3 R 2 1 V C C O K R 1 9 V C C J 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 P H 1 R 2 0V C C L E D 3 B U Z Z E R R 2 3 A P P L I A N C E B U Z Z E R R 1 4 V C C R L 2 L E D 2 C 9 L E D 1 Control Module
  12. 12. Programming modules: LCD module. Phase sensing Module. Control Module.
  13. 13. Advantages: Revenue Collection Efficiency Transparency in distribution Better customer Service Zero man-made errors Continuous running of single phase loads
  14. 14. Applications: Small and Medium Scale Industries Residential Apartments. Offices. ATM.
  15. 15. REFERENCES 1. Electron Devices and Circuits by P. Ramesh Babu, T.R. Ganesh Babu,Scitech Publications(INDIA) Pvt. Ltd. Chennai. 2.http://www.circuitstoday.com/wpcontent/uploads/ 2009/09/741ic-inverting- comparator-circuit.jpg 3.IEEE Standard , Standard Inverse-Time Characteristic Equations for Overcurrent Relays. 4. http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/tansformer#mw- head.

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