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  1. 1. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II By Rajarshi Chatterjee
  2. 2. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 1 SYNOPSIS
  3. 3. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 2 INTRODUCTION With the emergence of online media, there arises a question that, is it the end of the beginning or the beginning of the end. Online media is the most advanced developed and modern media. It is the greatest human invention in the field of Journalism and mass communication till date. With the advancement of internet and online media, there came social media. With the change in time, people are becoming busier and busier to an extent that they are forgetting their social relationships. To cope up with this, social media was made to help people maintain social relationships with ease. With this invention, people does not need to meet someone in person to communicate, instead all they need are an internet connection in computer or mobile phone and sign up to a social networking site like Facebook, Twitter, Orkut, etc. Later on, social media remained not just a communicating media but also the uncensored source of news. In all other media like Print and Electronic media, news is always censored, either by the Editor, Owner or the government, but the social media is so vast that no one has dared to censor it till now. Presently, social media acts as one of the greatest news source for a journalist. Social media is the only platform where every human gets the same rank, whether it is the President of a country or just a college student. It is also the easiest way to reach someone. If a journalist has got an assignment to report on PM’s visit to Beijing, he/she does not need to travel to Beijing, instead he/she can just wait for PM’s post on Facebook, tweet or contact PM directly through social media. Sometimes journalists can’t really reach an eminent personality personally but their tweet becomes breaking news. Today, we read much news through social media before we read it in a newspaper, hear it in radio or watch it in television. There are many countries where press and media is either owned or censored by the government, but social media is free from censorship. Citizens can easily blog, tweet or post on social media websites about their problems and daily challenges. Only a free press can show the real scenario of a state or country. Thanks to internet and social media for the arrival of raw citizen journalism. Citizen journalism is nothing but the actual voice of the citizens. There was a time when people use to say “Pen is mightier than sword”, now is the time to say “Social Media is mightier than anything”, because if anybody wants to share anything they don’t need money, network,sources,educational degrees, they just need an
  4. 4. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 3 internet connection and an account in social networking site. Within a few hours they may get millions of feedback. No one knows than can even be a breaking news like one happened during arresting Laden mission. A man tweeted that he saw too many helicopters in his neighbourhood and heard firing sounds and posted pictures of that, while having no knowledge that the American Forces were having their operation to arrest and kill Osama Bin Laden. My project is all about internet, online journalism, social media and its effects on mass and how it acts as an uncensored source of news.
  5. 5. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 4 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY As a part of the modern and youth generation, the thing that keeps us engaged for the most of the day is internet, more specifically social media. It plays a major important role in today’s life. People are either becoming busier or lazier to read newspapers, tune into radio for news or switch on the television. They want the news to be on their Facebook or twitter newsfeed. They believe “If news is important – I expect it to find me”. Freelancing and citizen journalism are the two new branches of journalism which are expanding at a massive rate. Social media not only put forwarded a platform for freelancing and citizen journalism but also a platform for publication of news free from charges and censorship. Truth has always been my prime interest. To me, News should be any accident or incident which effects and affects a large section of the society. News should be free from biasness. It should be true and uncensored. In today’s world, where money is the power and everything is a business, free and unbiased press and media doesn’t really exist. From this point of view, Social media gives us uncensored news, but may be biased from the point of view of the person who publishes but anyone can tally one social media post with another to get away with the biasness. In social media, one can directly criticise or question the writer that too with just a touch or a click. Social media is my point of internet and the amount of uncensored news published daily just amaze me.
  6. 6. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 5 LITERATURE REVIEW Charlotte Ryan, Kevin M. Carragee & Cassie Schwerner Media, movements, and the quest for social justice Journal of Applied Communication Research Volume 26, Issue 2, 1998 This essay examines the efforts of the Media Research and Action Project to assist marginalized groups in employing news as a political resource. The analysis highlights the news media as critical arenas of struggle for social movements and community groups seeking political change and social justice. The essay details how the Media Research and Action Project, influenced by resource mobilization theory and multiple research perspectives on news, assists community groups and social movements in their ability to: identify and challenge barriers to news media access; sharpen their preferred frames and strategies for promoting their definitions of political issues through the news media; and develop media initiatives integrated into their political strategies. A case involving a media‐centered public information campaign to influence policy formation and public attitudes concerning workplace reproductive rights is highlighted. Manos Tsagkias, Maarten de Rijke, Wouter Weerkamp Linking online news and social media WSDM '11 Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining ACM New York, NY, USA Much of what is discussed in social media is inspired by events in the news and, vice versa, social media provide us with a handle on the impact of news events. We address the following linking task: given a news article, find social media utterances that implicitly reference it. We follow a three-step approach: we derive multiple query models from a given source news article, which are then used to retrieve utterances from a target social media index, resulting in multiple ranked lists that we then merge using data fusion techniques. Query models are created by exploiting the structure of the source article and by using explicitly linked social media utterances that discuss the source article. To combat query drift
  7. 7. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 6 resulting from the large volume of text, either in the source news article itself or in social media utterances explicitly linked to it, we introduce a graph-based method for selecting discriminative terms. For our experimental evaluation, we use data from Twitter, Digg, Delicious, the New York Times Community, Wikipedia, and the blogosphere to generate query models. We show that different query models, based on different data sources, provide complementary information and manage to retrieve different social media utterances from our target index. As a consequence, data fusion methods manage to significantly boost retrieval performance over individual approaches. Our graph-based term selection method is shown to help improve both effectiveness and efficiency.
  8. 8. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 7 LIMITATIONS AND SCOPE My research talks about Social Media, News, and News Censorship with some global reference and case studies. There are many more examples of news censorship all over the globe and uncensored news stories whose source is social media than I could provide here. My basic limitations are like:  Could not reach experts from nations other than India to interview them or get their opinions.  Survey was limited within a region and most of them are students.  There are more data and case studies than I can put into dissertation paper. The basic scopes are:  One of the most interesting topics in present day.  Lot of data is available.  Research can be done globally with internationally recognised experts’ opinions.  Survey can be done from rural to urban population internationally.
  9. 9. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 8 METHODOLOGY 1. Content Analysis  Research through internet.  Studying past research papers and works on this topic.  Studying Social media.  Studying laws of censorship.  Studying similar case studies. 2. Surveying people  Making at least 10 questions for interview.  Interviewing at least 50 people from different occupation, profession or randomly. 3. Taking expert opinion  Making at least 10 questions for interview.  Interviewing at least 2 eminent personalities and media experts.
  10. 10. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 9 CONTENT ANALYSIS Social media started as communication websites. Since 1971, when the first e-mail was sent, man started slowly involving themselves into the world of social media. Friendster, MySpace, Facebook and later on Google +, Instagram, LinkedIn and many other social media websites came into the scenario. In the beginning it’s only responsibility was to bring people closer, creating a global village. As time moved, its responsibilities increased. Social media are not just websites to connect people now, it makes one’s identity, it makes professional relationships, it helps in career making, it helps in making certain statistics during war or disaster and it makes people aware of the daily happenings in the world. It doesn’t only spread news, rather let people express their opinion, comment and discuss or criticise anything openly with anyone around the globe. Many eminent personalities like Charlotte Ryan, Kevin M. Carragee, Cassie Schwerner, Manos Tsagkias, Maarten de Rijke and Wouter Weerkamp have researched and talked about online media and news, social media and the social justice and censorship of news. In every platform of news, it is somehow censored, whereas social media is the only platform where it’s contents including news is not censored. More incidents take place in a day than a newspaper can print or audio-video media cab broadcast, but one can find almost all major incidents around the world in social media as there is someone or the other to post it. Life is becoming fast day by day. People want to know everything instantaneously. They can’t wait for next day morning to get the news from the newspaper. In the same time they want mobile media and television is not at all mobile. Social media is the solution as it’s both instantaneous and mobile. To be with social media, all one needs are a computer or a Smartphone and an internet connection. Smartphones are now even cheaper than a television set. All the rest is free of cost. Anybody anywhere can post and read social media contents. There are countries like China where there is no freedom of press; social media is the only platform to express one’s situation in front of the world. But recently, Chinese Governments are restricting people to use social media websites, references are given below. India faced serious issues of news censorship before independence during British rule and after independence during Indira Gandhi’s emergency era. Even if the government doesn’t censor news, editor or the owner does in many media houses for many reasons. But no one censors social media contents. Social media publishes more contents than it can be censored. In social media, anybody can publish anything. Everybody doesn’t have the formal journalism degree or education but everybody can practise citizen journalism through social media. So, there is a question of credibility. If someone follows eminent personalities or journalists, then the news are believed to have credibility.
  11. 11. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 10 The popularity of the social networking sites is immense, specially amongst the youth. The sample chosen had a majority of students from the B-Schools. Analysis of the data tells us that 98% of the students uses at least one of the networking sites. The majority of the students spend on an average of about 6 to 9 hours every day surfing these networking sites. Amongst those about 28% users spend more than 1 hour everyday, ranging between 10 to over 15 hours being spent every week. The next question that arises is what else these students would be doing if not surfing on these sites during that time. When we asked that question during the survey, we arrived at a number of such things. Activites Percentage Studying 18 Socialising 48 Constructive work 11 Reading novels 22 Others 8 Most of the students would use the spare time for Socialising or hanging out with friends if they were not using these networking sites. 40% were of the opinion that they would be studying or reading novels and books which means that these networking sites are leaving the students with less time to study and to read books and novels. 8% said that they would be doing some other things like social work, sports, pursuing their hobbies etc. What is it that attracts the students to spend time surfing rather than doing other things mentioned above. Some said it was because they could make more friends, some said it was easier for them to stay in touch with their existing friends, for others it was to find old friends, to share a love relationship with or to find and interact with people with common interests or to get to know what’s happening around the world.. Getting news is fast and easy now. If someone follows a political personality or celebrity then they can directly get their newsfeed. The work is much easier for the journalists too. A journalist now doesn’t need to take the effort to meet and interview eminent people, then ask questions over social media or just follow them. Social media is global where everyone is in the closest proximity. In this situation, it’s time to see how the media industry survives.
  12. 12. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 11 HISTORY OF SOCIAL MEDIA Social media has been evolving since the invention of the Internet. From the first email in 1971 and Usenet in 1979 to GeoCities allowing everyone to set up their own personal homepage in 1995. However, Six Degrees is widely considered to be the first social network. Six Degrees launched in 1997 and grew to around 3,500,000 registered users and was sold to YouthStream Media Networks in 1999 for $125 million. To highlight how social media has evolved, let’s take a look at a few of the seminal platforms that helped the social media phenomenon take off. Friendster was founded in 2002 and at its peak had more than 100 million users. Sadly, after many struggles to re-invent itself, Friendster’s doors closed on June 14, 2015. The site was many people’s intro to online social networking, but like many before and after, the network failed to become a part of users’ daily routine and ultimately people skipped off when newer, shinier social networks emerged. From 2005 until 2008, Myspace was the largest social networking site in the world, and in June 2006 surpassed Google as the most visited website in the United States. Facebook overtook Myspace in May 2008 and since then the platform has been playing catch-up and trying to re-invent itself. As expected, the ubiquitous Facebook now leads the global social networking pack. Founded, like many social networking sites, by university students who initially peddled their product to other university students, Facebook launched in 2004 as a Harvard-only exercise and remained a campus-oriented site for two full years before finally opening to the general public in 2006. Yet, even by that time, Facebook was considered big business. So much so that, by 2009, Silicon Valley bigwigs such as Paypal co-founder and billionaire Peter Thiel invested tens of millions of dollars just to see it flourishes. The secret of Facebook’s success — the site currently boasts more than 1.3 billion active users — is a subject of much debate. Some point to its ease of use, others to its multitude of
  13. 13. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 12 easily-accessed features, and still others, to its memorable name. A highly targeted advertising model certainly doesn’t hurt, either, nor did financial injections such as the $60 million from noted Hong Kong tycoon Li Ka-shing in 2007. Regardless, there’s universal agreement on one thing: Facebook promotes both honesty and openness. It seems people really enjoy being themselves, and throwing that openness out there for all to see. Facebook is king for a reason. It wasn’t just through luck that founder Mark Zuckerberg’s darling came to reign supreme over the social media kingdom. It was, in fact, a series of smart moves and innovative features that set the platform apart from the rest of the social media pack. First and foremost, the 2007 launch of the Facebook Platform was key to site’s success. The open API made it possible for third-party developers to create applications that work within Facebook itself. Almost immediately after being released, the platform gained a massive amount of attention. At one point in time, Facebook had hundreds of thousands of apps built on the platform, so many that Facebook launched the Facebook App Store to organize and display them all. Twitter, meanwhile, created its own API and enjoyed similar success as a result. The other key to success was Facebook’s ubiquitous ‘Like’ button, which broke free from the bounds of the site and began appearing all over the Internet. Now you can ‘like’ or “tweet’ just about everything even when you’re not on Facebook or Twitter. Realizing the power of social networking, Google decided to launch their own social network (Google+) in 2007. It differed from Facebook and Twitter in that it wasn’t necessarily a full-featured networking site, but rather a social “layer” of the overall Google experience. Initially, Google generated a lot of buzz with the service’s Hangouts feature, which allowed users to enter live video chats with other online friends. At the time of launch, Facebook was scrambling to keep up by integrating a video chat feature of their own. Within just four weeks, Google+ had garnered 25 million unique visitors, with as much as 540 million active monthly users as of June 2014. Regardless, the service definitely didn’t dethrone Zuckerberg’s behemoth, especially considering more than half of Google+ users have never even visited the service’s official site. It still arguably showed the world that there was still room for innovation and competition in the realm of social networking, though. Now it’s all about a matter of touch.
  14. 14. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 13
  15. 15. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 14 SOCIAL MEDIA AND NEWS The modern day people believe in “If news is important, it will find me.” The new wave of journalism: the world in a tweet “I saw on Facebook/Twitter/Weibo…” is a term frequently heard in conversations nowadays. Social media platforms, which were originally developed as tools for social interaction, have become a vital source of information. Especially when a major event such as an earthquake happens, the first reports come more often from micro-blogging services or other online media, rather than traditional mass media. “Journalism, which was once difficult and expensive to produce, today surrounds us like the air we breathe.” When we log on to Twitter, we are immediately surrounded by all kinds of news posted or retweeted by twitters we follow. Undoubtedly, social media has changed how we perceive journalism. Social media: redefining journalism As Deuze claimed, “journalism as it is, has come to an end.” The perhaps most important revolutionary change that social media has brought to journalism, is that it enables all users to collect, communicate, share and display news and information, and so encourages “citizen
  16. 16. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 15 journalism” or “participatory journalism”. Thus social media has blurred the line between audiences and journalists, producers and consumers. “People formerly known as the audience” are no longer just passive receivers of news and information, but also active participants in the production and dissemination processes. The term of “prosumer” or “produsage” is used to describe this phenomenon. Moreover, social media has extended the affordances of previous modes of linear communication in journalism by combining one-to- many and many-to-many communication modes that are public, archived and searchable. These changes have lead to “a new model of journalism, labelled participatory journalism”. According to a study on news habits in the US conducted by Pew Research in 2010, 37% of Internet users, or so-called “news participants”, have actively contributed to the creation, commentary, or dissemination of news. Thus we can see that the trend towards a more participatory media ecosystem is evident. In a word, social media has redefined journalism from a one-way asymmetric model of communication to a more participatory and collective system. Citizen journalism vs. professional journalism The shift in the relationship between journalist and audiences also raises the question of who can be described as a journalist. As the motto of Ohmynews goes, “Every Citizen is a Reporter”. In social media, everyone can report, comment and share news and be part of the news process which used to be exclusively performed by professional journalists. However, this does not necessarily mean that every citizen journalist can “produce journalism within the establishment of accounts and analysis through narratives, with the aim of providing accurate and objective portrays of reality”. Although social media platforms, especially the microblogging services allow instant and up-to-date news and information, they cannot compete with the traditional press or broadcasting media in terms of objectivity and quality. How can we find the truth about a certain event, when there are tens of thousands of different fragmented pieces of news about it and there is no support in the form of selection, organization or interpretation by professional journalists? This is the challenge citizen journalism is facing. As Overholser argues, some ingredients of professional journalism such as accuracy, proportionality and fairness seem to be missing from the social networks. Social media to traditional news organizations: a curse or blessing? There used to be a hot debate around the issue of what social media means to traditional news organizations. For some news organizations, especially newspapers, the outlook seemed grim. Some even feared that social media would replace journalism. But today, not only scholars but also news organizations see more of opportunities than challenges in social media. For instance, Stassen identifies several major advantages of using social media: audience research, story generation, content promotion, community building, customer service, and sustaining and broadening attention. I believe the way forward for traditional news organizations is to take advantage of its professionalism to deliver news that is informative, accessible and of high-quality, while at the same time to make use of social media to provide more interactive, customized content to attract consumers.
  17. 17. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 16
  18. 18. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 17 There was a time when people when people used to wait for their morning daily to get updated about news. Today the scenario has changes, waiting is no longer needed. One can just click on the internet and search for news, that’s it. Today’s morning somehow looks like this:
  19. 19. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 18 One has all the choice, it’s upto the reader that they want the news in a paper, computer, tablet or phones. News is everywhere. Journalist’s tweet, Politicians’ tweet, celebrities’ tweet and post online.
  20. 20. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 19
  21. 21. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 20 Well, the other way one can see that in today’s world anyone can be a journalist even without any formal degree.
  22. 22. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 21 No one needs expensive gadgets photography and journalism degrees, all one needs are a phone and a social network site account, which is for free.
  23. 23. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 22 Everybody is a journalist today and almost everybody is connected to social Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication or other information which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or inconvenient as determined by governments, media outlets, authorities or other groups or institutions. With a help of social media, it’s very easy to comment and post people’s views on any issue and can create a debate. NEWS AND CENSORSHIP Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication or other information which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or inconvenient as determined by governments, media outlets, authorities or other groups or institutions. Media censorship takes many forms in the way you get your news. While news stories are often edited for length, there are many choices that are made that are designed to keep some information from becoming public. Sometimes these decisions are made to safeguard a person's privacy, others to protect media outlets from corporate or political fallout. Protecting a Person's Privacy This is probably the least controversial form of media censorship. When a minor commits a crime, his identity is concealed to protect him from future harm -- so he isn't turned down from getting a college education or a job. That changes if a minor is charged as an adult, like in the case of violent crime.
  24. 24. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 23 Most media outlets also conceal the identity of rape victims, so those people don't have to endure public humiliation. That was not the case for a brief period at NBC News, when it decided in 1991 to identify the woman accusing William Kennedy Smith (part of the powerful Kennedy clan) of raping her. NBC quickly reverted to the common practice of secrecy. Avoiding Graphic Details and Images Every day, someone commits a heinous act of violence or sexual depravity. In newsrooms across the country, editors have to decide whether saying a victim "was assaulted" suffices in describing what happened. In most instances, it does not. So a choice has to be made on how to describe the details of a crime in a way that helps the audience understand its atrocity without offending readers or viewers, especially children. In the case of Jeffrey Dahmer, the way he killed more than a dozen people was considered so sick that the graphic details were part of the story. That was also true when news editors were faced with the sexual details of Pres. Bill Clinton's relationship with Monica Lewinsky and the accusations of sexual harassmentAnita Hill made about then-U.S. Supreme Court justice nominee Clarence Thomas. Words that no editor had ever thought of printing or a newscaster had ever considered uttering were necessary to explain the story. Those are the exceptions. In most cases, editors will cross out information of an extremely violent or sexual nature, not to sanitize the news, but to keep from offending the audience. Concealing Security Information The U.S. military, intelligence and diplomatic operations function with a certain amount of secrecy. That confidentiality is regularly challenged by whistleblowers, anti-government groups or others who want to remove the lid on various aspects of U.S. government. In 1971, The New York Times published what's commonly called the Pentagon Papers, secret Defense Department documents detailing the problems of American involvement in the Vietnam War in ways the media had never reported. The Nixon administration went to court in a failed attempt to keep the leaked documents from being published.
  25. 25. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 24 Decades later, WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange are under fire for posting more than a quarter million secret U.S. documents, many involving national security. When The New York Times published these U.S. State Department papers, the U.S. Air Force responded by blocking the newspaper's website from its computers. These examples show that media owners face a difficult relationship with the government. When they approve stories containing potentially embarassing information, government officials often try to censor it. Advancing Corporate Interests Media companies are supposed to serve the public interest. Sometimes that's at odds with the conglomerate owners who control traditional media voices. Such was the case when The New York Times reported that executives from MSNBC owner General Electric and Fox News Channel owner News Corporation decided it wasn't in their corporate interests to allow on-air hosts Keith Olbermann and Bill O'Reilly to trade on-air attacks. While the jabs seemed mostly personal, there was news that came out of them. The Times reported that O'Reilly uncovered that General Electric was doing business in Iran. Although legal, G.E. later said it had stopped. A cease-fire between the hosts probably wouldn't have produced that information, which is newsworthy despite the apparent motivation for getting it. Cable TV giant Comcast faces a unique charge of censorship. Shortly after the Federal Communications Commission approved its takeover of NBC Universal, it hired FCC commissioner Meredith Attwell Baker who had voted for the merger. While some denounced the move as a conflict of interest, a single tweet is what unleashed Comcast's wrath. A worker at a summer film camp for teenage girls questioned the hiring through Twitter. Comcast responded by yanking $18,000 in funding for the camp. The company later apologized and offered to restore its contribution. Camp officials say they want to be able to speak freely without being hushed by corporations. Hiding Political Bias Critics often lambast media for having political bias. While viewpoints on the editorial pages are clear to see, the link between politics and censorship is harder to spot. The ABC news program Nightline once devoted its broadcast to reading the names of more than 700 U.S. servicemen and women killed in Iraq. What appeared to be a solemn tribute to military sacrifice was interpreted as a politically-motivated, anti-war stunt by Sinclair Broadcast Group, which didn't allow the program to be seen on the seven ABC stations it owned.
  26. 26. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 25 Sinclair is the same company that a media watchdog group says called more than 100 members of Congress "censorship advocates" for raising concerns to the FCC about Sinclair's plans to air the film Stolen Honor. That production was blasted for being propaganda against then-presidential candidate John Kerry. Sinclair responded by saying it wanted to air the documentary networks refused to show it. In the end, bowing to pressure on several fronts, the company aired a revised version that only included parts of the film. Communist countries that once stopped the free flow of information may have largely disappeared, but even in America censorship issues keep some news from reaching you. With the explosion of citizen journalism and internet platforms, the truth will now have an easier way of getting out.
  27. 27. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 26 CASE STUDIES In this project we have already read about social media, it’s history, it’s relationship with news and censorship of news, now it’s time to check how news is censored in different countries through different news websites and e-newspapers. Case Study 1 News about Censorship, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. CHRONOLOGY OF COVERAGE 1. NOV. 24, 2015 Chinese government cuts mobile services of residents in Xinjiang who use software enabling them to circumvent Internet filters; move intensifies already aggressive electronic surveillance strategy. 2. NOV. 3, 2015 Russian authorities place Natalia Sharina, director of Ukrainian-language library in Moscow, under house arrest for allegedly allowing public access to banned books by Ukrainian nationalist writer Dmytro Korchynsky. 3. OCT. 20, 2015 Hong Kong bookstores largely stock titles sympathetic to Communist regime, distributed by companies bankrolled by Chinese government; bury political books banned on mainland, despite long history of demand; publisher of banned books blames situation on city's people and media bending to Beijing. 4. OCT. 12, 2015 Apple disables its Apple News app in China; is most recent indication of problematic situation foreign firms face regarding strict censorship of media and online expression in country. 5. SEP. 18, 2015 Egyptian court bans media from covering killing of eight Mexican tourists mistaken for insurgents by security forces, pending investigation; some suspect government cover up for increasingly common mistake. 6. SEP. 1, 2015 Chinese Ministry of Public Security says nearly 200 people were reprimanded and possibly detained recently for using Internet to spread rumors about China's volatile economy and Tianjin explosion; journalist Wang Xiaolu was forced to confess writing an 'irrespnsible' article on state television. 7. AUG. 19, 2015 Mayor Luigi Brugnaro of Venice, newly elected conservative, had pledged to ban 49 children's books that were added to city's preschool libraries by previous administration;
  28. 28. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 27 public outcry has caused Brugnaro to cut list to two books, both featuring same-sex families; move starts vigorous debate over right of educators to choose their teaching tools, and highlights Italy's ongoing struggle over gay rights. 8. AUG. 18, 2015 Malaysian Communications Minister Salleh Said Keruak says Facebook, Google and Twitter will be asked to curb content to preserve public safety; request is latest effort to quash dissent triggered by accusations of graft at state investment fund, which has proved problematic for Prime Min Najib Razak. 9. AUG. 15, 2015 Number of Western authors like British journalist Luke Harding have discovered that Russian publishing house Algoritm is publishing censored versions of their books without permission or consultation. 10. AUG. 14, 2015 Obama administration cites growing concerns about human rights violations in China as it pledges to make issue prominent component of summit talks between Pres Obama and Chinese Pres Xi Jinping; point to particular concern about media censorship and reprisals that keep violence and other issues from being reported to Chinese media or citizens. 11. AUG. 4, 2015 Government of India orders Internet service providers to block 857 pornography sites, while leaving thousands of others accessible, despite Supreme Court ruling that such sites should not be blocked; offers no explanation for action; affected sites had been singled out by lawyer Kamlesh Vaswani, who had previously failed to persuade Supreme Court to block them. 12. JUL. 20, 2015 Memo from Yangon; Burmese language does not contain many words related to modern commerce and politics, result of highly-censored, authoritarian era when Myanmar was largely cut off from rest of world; language blocks have proved liability as country seeks to open itself to progress. 13. MAY. 29, 2015 Group of Chinese authors and their supporters gather at New York Public Library in Midtown Manhattan to protest strict government limits on free speech in their home country in demonstration organized by PEN American Center; protest is sparked by large gathering of Chinese publishers at BookExpo America, major publishing trade event, only blocks away. 14. MAY. 25, 2015 Op-Ed article by Profs Sergei Guriev and Daniel Treisman notes rise of new brand of dictator, who maintains power not through physical violence but through propaganda, censorship, material reward and bureaucracy; contends West must both understand how such regimes work and acknowledge its own role in enabling them. 15. APR. 26, 2015 Li Nanyang has filed lawsuit challenging China's legal standing to confiscate publications entering country at airports; authorities seized copies of memoir by her father, Li Rui, retired Communist Party official who penned unvarnished insider's account of country's leadership; while Li does not expect her property to be restored, she hopes suit will force government to explain reasoning behind extensive censorship. 16. APR. 22, 2015
  29. 29. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 28 Advocacy group Committee to Protect Journalists says strict control over freedom of expression and thought in Eritrea and North Korea places them at top of list of world's 10 most censored countries. 17. APR. 11, 2015 Report published by The Citizen Lab finds that China used new cyberweapon known as Great Cannon to redirect large amounts of Internet traffic to GitHub and GreatFire.Org, causing sites to shut down temporarily; researchers say weapon is similar to ones developed by United States and United Kingdom, but China seems intent on using device for censorship, although it has other troubling possible applications. 18. APR. 9, 2015 India's Supreme Court decides to permit staging of Andrew Lloyd Webber rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar in Kottayam district of Kerala state, 25 years after show was outlawed there to prevent offending religious sensibilities; ban was supposed to be temporary, but stretched over two decades. 19. APR. 8, 2015 Google manages to avoid wave of Internet bans in Turkey after it removes links to photos of militant hostage taker pointing gun at head of Selim Kiraz, prosecutor killed after raid at Istanbul courthouse; government officials have called images terrorist propaganda. 20. APR. 7, 2015 Turkish Prime Min Ahmet Davutoglu says news outlets that published photo of hostage Mehmet Selim Kiraz held at gunpoint in central courthouse are 'tools of terrorist propaganda' and bars their reporters from covering funeral of hostage, who was killed in special forces raid; many websites, including Twitter and YouTube, are blocked for not removing image. 21. APR. 2, 2015 Many Russian artists are censoring themselves in effort to avoid often vaguely defined and enforced Russian laws that ban obscenities in public performances and criminalize offending religious believers; issue has moved into spotlight after Russia's culture minister fired Siberian theater director over Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theater production of Wagner's Tannhauser, saying it was offensive to Russian Orthodox Church. 22. MAR. 31, 2015 China has of late been attacking websites that attempt to help Internet users in country dodge censorship, including search firm Baidu; main target of latest attacks is GitHub, popular site that functions as library of code for programmers. 23. MAR. 26, 2015 Editorial welcomes decision striking down restrictions on Internet speech in India, where officials have been banning films, intimidating authors and arresting Internet users; observes while Indian Supreme Court's move is improvement in increasingly restrictive atmosphere, it still leaves room for government to block websites on the basis of national security. 24. MAR. 14, 2015 Turkey's censorship policy, which blocks access to websites government finds objectionable, does not extend to sites that advocate Islamic extremism or even some that recruit Turks to join Islamic State; some critics say Pres Recep Tayyip Erdogan's selective crackdown on freedom of speech reflect's government's Islamic values. 25. MAR. 7, 2015
  30. 30. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 29 Documentary film Under the Dome is deleted from major Chinese websites on orders of Communist Party's propaganda department; video had caused national stir over country's air pollution problem and was viewed hundreds of millions of times on Internet in week since its release. 26. MAR. 7, 2015 Zachary Woolfe Critic's Notebook chastises New York Youth Symphony for cancelling Carnegie Hall performance of Jonas Tarm composition Marsh u Nebuttya after complaint about its quotation from Nazi anthem; notes several examples of musical works that have referenced anthem or expressed political messages; calls on symphony to perform work and let audiences interpret it for themselves. 27. MAR. 5, 2015 New York Youth Symphony pulls commissioned piece by composer Jonas Tarm from Carnegie Hall performance after learning that it contains musical quotation from Nazi anthem; Tarm says piece is about conflict, totalitarianism and nationalism and calls orchestra's decision censorship. 28. FEB. 10, 2015 Yuan Guiren, China's education minister, ramps up calls for ban on textbooks that promote Western values, warning that they will corrupt young minds; latest censorship attempts elicit rare open criticism from Chinese academics and students, who reject idea that they are intellectually vulnerable and note that Guiren has reversed his prior comments promoting openness. 29. FEB. 3, 2015 Censoring of Mihir Joshi music video that used word 'Bombay' by India's Central Board of Film Certification has drawn criticism and mockery, but board's chairman says he stands by decision; name of city was changed to Mumbai in 1995, and dispute points to ongoing debate over history and identity in India. 30. JAN. 31, 2015 Editorial contends that series of steps China has taken to tightly control Internet communication and devices will harm both Chinese economy and its international business relations; holds that country's proposed regulations, which are aimed at suppressing dissent and promoting Chinese technology at expense of foreign industry, amount to protectionism and will discourage trade negotiations with rest of the world. 31. JAN. 30, 2015 Chinese officials are further tightening and restricting Internet access; crackdown is angering artists, entrepreneurs and professors who say country's economy is being choked at time of declining growth; multinational companies also worry about rising online restrictions of virtual private networks, or VPNs. 32. JAN. 27, 2015 Turkish state broadcaster TRT and a Facebook employee confirm that company has blocked access to pages with content that Turkish authorities have deemed insulting to Prophet Muhammad; action was taken to comply with Turkish court order which, if defied, may have resulted in government cutting off access to social media site entirely. 33. JAN. 16, 2015 Editorial contends European leaders are taking misguided actions to reduce hate speech and prevent terrorism in aftermath of Charlie Hebdo attack; warns suggested censoring of hate speech and providing means of monitoring conversations by Internet service providers
  31. 31. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 30 would be potentially ineffectual, invasive and dangerous; holds government should continue to use targeted intelligence gathering to stem terrorist threats, but not censorship and surveillance. 34. JAN. 5, 2015 Survey of writers around world by the PEN American Center finds that significant majority say they are deeply concerned with government surveillance and that it has affected their willingness to address controversial topics in writing; results show that writers consider freedom of expression to be under threat around world in both democratic and nondemocratic countries. 35. JAN. 4, 2015 Op-Ed article by author Nury Vittachi describes hurdles Chinese screenwriters face as they try to get movies made while withstanding the censor's shears; expresses hope that Chinese public and investors will eventually demand standards that are similar to the rest of the world. Case Study 2 Indian government Says Internet Restrictions Should Be Stricter than Print, TV: Report by NDTV Correspondent , 26 February 2015 At a hearing in the Supreme Court of India on Wednesday, government representatives told the court that the level of restriction on the medium should be higher than that of print or television. This was said in justifying the retention of the penal provision of Section 66A of the Information Technology Act. According to a report, Additional Solicitor General Tushar Mehta argued before the apex court that there was need for a mechanism of checks and balances on the Internet, though he added that it was impossible to regulate it. "There are institutions which are working in other media whether it is paper, television or cinema," said Mehta. "There is an institutional approach and there are checks like pre- censorship for TV and films. But in Internet there is individual approach and there is no checks and balances or license." According to him, the Web needs a higher level of restriction because of the speed with which information spreads, and the scope of its reach.
  32. 32. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 31 "Considering the reach and impact of medium, leeway be given to legislature to frame rules," he said. "On the Internet every individual is a director, producer and broadcaster and a person can send offensive material to millions of people at a same time in nanosecond just with a click of button." "It is not possible to outrage someone's modesty through print and television but it can be easily done through internet," he said. However, others have argued this point, and there are many who feel that the law as it exists is too vague, and hurts online entrepreneurship. The bench of the Supreme Court also said that reasonable restrictions on free speech as allowed under Article 19(2) of Constitution on freedom of speech and expression did not recognize any form of medium. The provision, as it exists, makes posting offensive messages on social network sites an offence punishable by up to three years in jail. The issue that many have is that the exact terms are not clearly defined - and people argue - that without a clear definition of offensive material, anything could be viewed as such. The court had earlier said that the term offensive was "vague" and highly "subjective" term and Section 66A is prone to misuse. Speaking for the government, Mehta however said that the provision cannot be quashed or thrown out just because the provision is vague on defining the word "grossly offensive". The court had earlier also raised concerns that the majority of cases that come up lie in a grey area and that there is a chance of misuse. It reportedly said conservatives would always term the opinion of reformists as offensive and cited the example of Galileo who was kept under house arrest till death for his theory that earth revolves around the Sun. In turn, the government said that posting pictures and comments on social networking sites which hurt religious sentiments cannot be tolerated and people must be prosecuted under Section 66A. It had said that hurting religious sentiments comes under the category of "grossly offensive" under the provision and such acts must be penalized.
  33. 33. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 32 Case Study 3 The fear of censorship in Indian media Soutik Biswas Delhi correspondent George Bernard Shaw once said that "censorships exist to prevent anyone from challenging current conceptions and existing institutions". A recent outcry in India shows just how many fear this in Narendra Modi's government after it accused three TV news networks of violating broadcasting regulations by airing interviews that criticised last month's execution of Yakub Memon, the man convicted of financing the deadly 1993 Mumbai bombings. It even threatened to cancel the licenses of the channels for violating broadcasting laws. Memon's execution was controversial - there were reports that he had been betrayed by Indian authorities after being coaxed into surrendering. He had also spent two decades in prison as legal proceedings dragged on. His execution triggered a debate on the death penalty and "selective justice" in India. His mercy pleas were rejected twice by the president and appeals to suspend the execution were discarded by the Supreme Court, the last time in an unusual early morning hearing. But in what many journalists see as a crude form of censorship, a terse directive was issued by the Information and Broadcasting Ministry, which has Orwellian echoes in a country that prides itself as the world's largest democracy. It argued the broadcast interviews contained content which "cast aspersions against the integrity of the president and judiciary". So what offended? In one of the interviews, a former lawyer of Memon was quoted as saying that one man charged over the blasts had been pardoned by the courts despite playing a bigger role in the bombings than Memon himself. "If you show this pardon to any person outside India - UK authorities or US authorities or the best brains in the world as far as criminal law is concerned - they will laugh at you," the lawyer said. "They will laugh at you. They'll say, "Is this justice"? Another apparently disrespectful interview was with a Mumbai underworld figure who is at large and described as one of the masterminds of the bombings. Chhotta Shakeel called up the channel to claim that Memon's execution was "legal murder". The networks lost no time in taking umbrage at the directive, saying that the government's reasoning was "questionable" and that they had followed ample self-regulation in covering terror-related incidents. India's cable network laws already limit media coverage of anti-terror operations to "periodic briefings" by government press officers until the operation ends. Top lawyer Indira Jaisingh says the government "cannot fight surrogate battles" on behalf of the President and the Supreme Court. "Long years ago, the Supreme Court said the air waves belong to us all, and that free speech cannot be curtailed by the denial of a licence to broadcast - something the government is trying to do," she wrote in Indian news website The Wire.
  34. 34. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 33 'March of the democratators?' One of the great ironies here is that the broadcasting ministry is run by Arun Jaitley - also the finance minister - who is seen as a moderate face of the government and who, according to a senior journalist, "believes in live and let live". As an opposition student leader in the 1970's Mr Jaitley spent 19 months in prison when Indira Gandhi suspended civil liberties during the infamous Emergency and imposed the harshest clampdown on media in the history of Independent India. "Media censorship is not possible today because of technology," Mr Jaitley told a gathering at a launch of a book on Emergency in June. So why is Mr Modi's government issuing such fiats? Part of the problem, say many, may have to do with Mr Modi himself - he prefers the formality of clipped and controlled social media messaging and radio dialogues to the informality of open and frank media interviews. In some ways, say his critics, he conforms to a pattern set by leaders such as Vladimir Putin or Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who, according to Joel Simon, author of The New Censorship: Inside the Global Battle for Media Freedom, use their massive mandates to govern as dictators or "democratators". But it is also the case that Mr Modi has long preferred to interact with the public directly, unmediated by journalists, and it is a strategy that has served him well, winning him the adulation of many young Indians who identify with such direct contact. Mr Modi's office is also seen as one of the most centralised in recent history. "That is where things are going wrong," says journalist Neerja Chowdhury. "You can't run a country like India if you centralise power." Image captionArun Jaitley, who heads the information ministry, is a seen as a moderate force Senior journalist Shekhar Gupta writes that the "first indication that a government is losing nerve or grip when it starts blaming and targeting the media". It is absurd, he says, for the government to believe it can control the media today's pell-mell world of social media. "A war on the news media causes any government terrible, often terminal damage. It does no real harm to the media," he writes.
  35. 35. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 34 India, already, needs more press freedom than many of its democratic counterparts. This year, it ranked a lowly 136 out of 180 countries in the Reporters Without Borders World Press Freedom Index. Its ostensibly thriving media can often be an an illusion. But the biggest mystery is why a government with one of the most comfortable majorities in Independent India feels the need to flex its muscles this way. Could it be an early sign of insecurity?
  36. 36. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 35 EXPERT INTERVIEWS Interview 1 Rajdeep Sardesai Media Personality Contact: +919811101834 1) What is social media to you? Social gives chance to directly communicate with lots of people whom I would otherwise never be in touch with either face to face or through television shows. It’s a better way of communication. It gives millions of viewers in real time. 2) How is social media related to your life? Social media is an important part of my life because it gives me a sense of what’s going on around in the society, real time information on what’s going on around. In terms of Facebook, it’s a great place for me to actually relate and integrate with friends. I use Facebook for chatting with friends and I use twitter largely for talking to a wider world. 3) What role does news play in your life? News for me is basically my profession. I’m basically a newsman who tracks news for 24/7, that’s my job. I am passionate about being an observer of society and politics
  37. 37. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 36 which changes. So it naturally plays an important part in my life. News is my window to the world. It’s something that I passionately follow. 4) What is your preferred source of news? My preferred source of news, frankly, I am still someone who needs half a dozen newspaper in the morning. For breaking news I turn to either social media or television. 5) As a journalist, do you think social media is a good source of news? I think social media is a one source of news. I won’t call it good or bad. Like all other media it has some strength and weakness too. I find sometimes social media a noxious chamber of hate and outrage and other time I find it very useful to find out what’s happening in the world. I wouldn’t say its my sole sole source of news nor would I say it’s necessary only a good source of news. It has its good points and weaknesses. 6) Can you remember any news which you got from social media? Yes, I remember, there was a case in Mumbai. I don’t remember the name of the individual. It was a case of sexual harassment. I got this story from social media and then we followed it up. 7) How can you relate censorship with your life? I am a great opponent of any form of censorship. I believe the only thing that should be censored is any incitement to violence or any speech that is designed to spread hatred among communities. And even in that you must be very clear that those kind which is deliberately provocative. Anything that provokes violence should be avoided and everything else to my mind should be free speech. 8) Do you think news should be censored? At the moment you censor news you lose the core of news as it believed to be free and independent. 9) Do you think social media is the uncensored source of news? I think that’s a good way to put it. I think that’s an uncensored source of news because there are no filters and that’s its strength and weakness. The information that comes into social media from may not be accurate which may as I said it may spread violence and hatred among the community which is unacceptable
  38. 38. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 37 to me. Its strength is that it’s all in real time. And it’s not controlled by someone unlike the thing happens in a newsroom. It can be democratizing. 10) Do you support in censorship of social media? I believe any media must work on the framework of rules, must be rule-based. Interview 2 Sayan bhattacharya Director, Global Shared Services MSH Group Contact: 1) What is social media to you? Social Media is the most prominent mode of engagement today. Be it Facebook to connect with friends across globe or Twitter to voice an opinion and to view opinion of personalities I aspire and follow or LinkedIn to network with professionals. Engagement, Networking, News & Sharing Memories are the keywords which can be tagged to social media for me. 2) How is social media related to your life? Social media is related in every aspect of my life today. Through Facebook I am in touch with friends who are based out across globe easily. I can share moments of my life, cherish our memories, plan events and do things which were not at all possible a decade back. The world has become a small place today. I use twitter extensively to voice my opinion and also to view opinions, specifics and updates of leaders, celebrities I follow and also stay update on current affairs and what is trending. LinkedIn is another social app I use extensively to network with professionals in my industry to pitch for my company's services or know more about a prospect or a company. Also LinkedIn is the best way to evaluate opportunities for career change. Instagram is another app I use to share some special moments with my friends. YouTube I use extensively when it comes to watching videos, news, sports or any other media content. Also another social app which I use is TripAdvisor for planning trips, giving my feedback on hotels, locations and places and also review feedbacks of other travellers. These are some of the social applications which I use extensively in my daily life. 3) What role does news play in your life?
  39. 39. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 38 News is a commodity for me and I try to stay updated as much as possible in all aspects and fields. My primary areas of interest are politics, business, sports, global politics, travel and finance (update on stock markets and economy) 4) What is your preferred source of news? I start my day with Times of India. Follow up with news through social media (Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn) over the day and economic times and end the day with media channels such as Times Now, BBC, ET & Bloomberg. I also would like to specify about which i follow to get update on start up news 5) Do you think social media is a good source of news? I believe social media is a very good source but the challenge is to control the inflow as at times there is a overflow of news coming through it. Big boys like FB and LinkedIn are trying their best with big data to make news very specific based on end user interest but perhaps still half a decade away. I usually check news daily through LinkedIn Pulse, Twitter trends, Facebook. 6) What are the news that you remember you got from social media? Dell buying EMC, Maggi back into Action, Recent Paris Terrorist Attack & Russian flight down by Turkey 7) How can you relate censorship with your life? I do see censorship causing problem to celebrities and big shots. But personally I have not experienced any impact on censorship in my life. 8) Do you think news should be censored? I am strongly against censorship of news. News should be reported as actual which unfortunately is not the case in our politicised world 9) Do you think social media is the uncensored source of news? Yes to a large extent. But it does get biased based on who is reporting and what alignment the individual is having towards 10) Do you support in censorship of social media? No I don't support for censorship unless it pose a threat to national security
  40. 40. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 39 Interview 3 Sanjay Bhadra Chief Reporter, Kolkata TV Contact: +9196741751333 On news, news source, media, social media, censorship. Social media, initially it was a fun platform, where you can connect people you know like friends, long term friends, childhood friends. Now social media is fast turning out to be a place where you get to know about events, news which is happening around you but to which you don’t have an access to. So, apart from being connected, be in touch with friends and all, you can be in touch with the news which is happening around. It’s place where you actually have the real time input. It’s very much related to my life. To me, it touches a particular chord of my life which is dear to me, near to me, some fond memories, some sad memories and those are facts. In social media, specifically in Twitter and Facebook, I’m in touch with lot of friends who in the media fraternity in some other pool, but then somehow related to news or maybe they have an interest for news, nose for news. So this is a place where I am always being updated about news from them and it is also the place where I can update them with news which I know or have access to. This is off course one such place which I particularly use as a medium as there are lot of news which I can’t show or I’m not allowed to show in my television channel. There are news which goes against the policies, off the source new, but I’m quite aware of those facts and they are interesting. This is one such place where I can share these to all people under the sun and make them understand that I have this much of capability and access though I can’t show them in my channel. This is a place where I can build my image as a reporter which is confined only to my channel or national dailies, where I used to work before joining Kolkata TV where I have grown up with an image as a reporter. But certainly, this has enhanced my image as a reporter, because there are many people I know that we regularly follow your feeds regarding any news, happenings, and big events. I was concerned about my number of friends in Facebook. One day I was checking and found that my number of followers has increased to 1800 persons. I believe when they are following me, like my status, they must actually like some aspect of my profile. I have no other virtues in my life that can be followed. So the only thing someone can like in me is that my reporting. It somehow enhances my image. I met a family in Dooars, Jalpaiguri, while I was in a holiday where the man came to me and said “You must be Sanjay Bhadra. I am in touch with you through facebook. I follow your feeds. I was very interesting to get updates from you regarding Chota Rajan”. He is one who talked to me like that and I’m quite sure there and other people like him too. So actually my intention to share or spread these information
  41. 41. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 40 which I can’t do through my channel actually works through social media. It acts as a platform to exchange news. I am in touch with many other journalists like Saikat Dutta of Hindusthan Times, editing National security and Matin Haffiz, special correspondent of The Times Of India, Mumbai. One thing is like Sheena Bora case happening and the way Matin updated news on that on social media I was quite sure that I was having access to all the news, development in real time. Matin is in national daily, so he can’t break news like television channel reporters but he has access and capability to do so, and he does it through social media. Actually I got the news from his social media account; called him up for more updates and sitting in Calcutta I broke the news for my TV channel. In many such I broke news nationally, but my source was nothing else but a journal based on Mumbai. Credit obviously goes to Matin, but his Twitter and Facebook account is to blamed as if I didn’t break that news, some other channel would have done that in the course of the day. Role of news in my life? It will sound like very bookish. For any news-person, news should be like his Bible, Quran or Gita or anything like that. News for me is something to live with. I am not talking about dreaming news or something like that but something to deal all the time. As you are talking to me regarding your dissertation paper on social media, it is news for me. If someone talks to me about this or related topic I will mention this discussion between us. News is everything. Every information that you have is news. Any information can be transformed into news, platform may differ, but every information has a news value. If someone says or spreads rumour that this diwali, there will be given 15 days of bonus, that’s a big news for me. Offcourse the direct sources, human resources are the best news sources. These days any good reporters will say that they have two main source of news, human resource and technological resource. I call it Humid-Human intelligence and Technic-Technological intelligence. We, the reporters are like intelligence agencies, we work for like intelligence officers. We have to dig news. As Mamta Banerjee travelled to Delhi and met Prime Minister, its not like that she will come out and tell us the entire discussion. She will say what she needs to say, she knows his publicity techniques. She will say like that she demanded 21 thousand crore rupees and all. I am not interested in breaking that news; I know that apart from that there were certain other talks in which I am more interested in that. Many intelligence agencies are also nowadays keeping track of News channels like CNN. They are interested in that content of the discussion. I am in Calcutta that doesn’t mean I will have sit idle, I am in touch with a guy for two hours who is with Mamta Banerjee, so I am quite sure what Mamta is going to say. But that guy will feed me with certain interesting things. Third party feed is not that reliable. But if you don’t have acces to first and second person, you will have to reach the third, but you have to be sure to crosscheck and filter those information. It is a very good source of news but you have to be sure about certain things. News can be misleading in social media. You must always crosscheck social media news from other sources. You need to know who reliable people are. If Poranjoy Guhathakur da updates certain things I will definitely go by it as I know how sincere he is. If Matin, Haffiz or Rajib Kanwala writes I know he is saying something true.
  42. 42. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 41 Even in traditional media we have to crosscheck our sources and know how credible our sources are. Same is with the social media platform. You will have to know whose feed you are taking. You need to have a crosscheck mechanism in your brain. If you are sensible I don’t think someone can mislead you. Try to find that if your source has any intension of his own interest. Don’t let your source mislead you or use you. There is much news which I’ve got from social media. I was already giving you some references like Sheena Bora Case, Chota Rajan found in Bangkok airport. There should be reasonable restrictions or censorship. There should be certain amount of restriction but that should be reasonable like we have something in section 19 A B or something like that. We have liberty but there are certain restrictions in every aspect of life especially in case of media. Media has huge power and if there is no restriction it can be misused. It just takes one hour to run a story to convince people around a state against a person, I can build up an opinion. Say after one hour, I withdraw my story, but people will be already convinced with whatever I have said an hour before. Who knows if I am corrupted? There should be restriction to every power. Democracy doesn’t allow us to poke nose into every matter. It’s a democratic country that doesn’t mean that my neighbor kisses his wife or not. May be I like his wife, or charmed by her looks, that doesn’t mean that it’s a democratic country so I will go to his house and kiss his wife. It is a tendency that in everywhere in media, police, bureaucracies, when I have some power, I will try to manipulate this power to bring something in my favor. So if there is no bar things might go in wrong way. Democracy even cannot be enjoyed to the fullest. Bit of manipulation is okay but total manipulation is not done. I cannot allow censorship like 1975, but in today’s perspective, my news is being censored in my own house, can I be against it? Did my parents allow me to enjoy 100% liberty in his house? So there’s censorship everywhere and we can adjust to bit of censorship, but there should be limitations to it. Media which is also called the pillar of democracy, but it actually doesn’t play a watch-dog role as it is discussed in books, classrooms or seminars. That kind of definition is given keeping in my mind that everything beside is good, but in manipulative society, corrupt society you can’t expect everything will be bad and media will play its good role. Media has to sustain itself. It doesn’t get subsidy from the government. We play a conscious role in a sense but not 100%. It is the structure now; you can’t blame media for this. It is the society that corrupts. So there should be censorship to some reasonable extent. No, there should be no censorship in social media. It is the platform where people can express their views. There are certain wrong things but still in small quantity, so its not a huge
  43. 43. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 42 problem. If someone doesn’t like Narendra Modi, he or she may write that in their social media page. If someone makes a cartoon of Mamta Banerjee, police will go and arrest him, that’s not fair to me. So there should be some freedom. Interview 4 Asish Patra Director Online, ESSEL Contact: +919674166590 1) What is social media to you? Social media is a media where each and everyone can connect with each other. As technology has upgraded, social media has upgraded alongwith it. The way we use social media today, maybe it was not made for this purpose. I think a technologically sound person can use social media better. I too think there are many social media users who don’t even know what social media is. To me, social media is a platform where we can know and learn many things. It is also something where connecting people are much fast and easy. 2) How is social media related to your life? It connects me with a lot of people. 3) What role does news play in your life? Each and every second of my life is news. As a newsman, each and every news, whether it be national, regional or international, it’s very important to me. Every real event is basically news. I think it inspires or influence not only me but everyone to build up an opinion. 4) What is your preferred source of news? Obviously social media, websites, fields, it depends. 5) Do you think social media is a good source of news?
  44. 44. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 43 Social media is a very good source of news. 6) What are the news that you remember you got from social media? Almost everything like even today I got the news of Rahul Gandhi and Sonia Gandhi Herald Case, I got it from Social media. 7) How can you relate censorship with your life? Censorship is not at all needed. I am totally against censorship. Everyone has the freedom to choose what they want to see, hear or read. There shouldn’t be any restriction to it. 8) Do you think news should be censored? News should never be censored. If it is seen that the news may be effect a section of the society then it should be interpreted or published or broadcasted in a different way, but it shouldn’t be censored. There can be some after effects sometimes. But that doesn’t mean news should be censored. News should be served in an uncensored way. Anything that is censored cannot be news. News is always uncensored. If news is censored, then there is some biasness, it is somehow not justified. Practically it is not always possible; it is sometimes broadcasted in a censored way. Ideally, news should be uncensored. Not only news, any other mediums like film, documentary, book, television program or music should also be uncensored as its viewers or listeners are watching or hearing that with their own concern and self freedom. 9) Do you think social media is the uncensored source of news? It is partially uncensored. 10) Do you support in censorship of social media? Everything should be uncensored. I think at least 80% of the total social media users are literate. If somebody wants to see or read something, they can, if somebody doesn’t want to see or read, no one forces them. There is absolutely no need of censorship.
  45. 45. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 44 SURVEY ANALYSIS Yes 91% No 0% Sometimes 9% Active Social Media User Yes No Sometimes Yes 80% No 5% Someti mes 15% Active Follower of News Yes No Sometimes Yes 57% No 16% Someti mes 27% Uses Traditional Media to get News Yes No Sometimes
  46. 46. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 45 Yes 76% No 6% Someti mes 18% Reads e- newspaper Yes No Sometimes Yes 58% No 20% Someti mes 22% Read Blogs Yes No Sometimes Yes 91% No 0% Someti mes 9% Thinks Social Media is a source of news Yes No Sometimes Yes 36% No 24% Maybe 40% Thinks Social Media is a better source of News than Traditional Media Yes No Maybe
  47. 47. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 46 Yes 25% No 51% Somet imes 24% Supports Censorship of news Yes No Sometimes Yes 34% No 13% Maybe 53% Thinks Traditional Media provides censored news Yes No Maybe
  48. 48. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 47 Yes 38% No 36% Maybe 26% Thinks Social Media is the Uncensored News Source Yes No Maybe
  49. 49. Social Media, the uncensored news source Part II; MMCC By Rajarshi Chatterjee 48 CONCLUSION After researching a lot we have found various examples of news censorship, we come to know about the rise of citizen journalism, how the world and media changed with internet and smartphones and how social media has turned into a good source of news. At the simplest, news is anything that occurs. The news is anything which effects and affects a larger section of the society is the general definition of news for the media houses. Now we see a lot of people carrying smartphones, clicking pictures, capturing videos and instantly uploading in social media. This is how citizen journalism works. Their stories, pictures, videos, posts or tweets sometimes get transformed into a big and breaking news story. This is how the world came to know about US’s secret operation to assassinate Osama Bin Laden. Our case studies talked about how news is censored in different countries across the world including India. Our experts include India’s one of the greatest journalists like Rajdeep Sardesai, Sanjay Bhadra and Ashish Patra. In experts opinion one can find expert comments from corporate and IT official. Experts talked about News, Social Media, News censorship and News Sources. We have also collected opinion from other professionals like School principal, Engineer and Short-Film maker. After studying expert opinions and random survey results, we can come to the following conclusion:  Majority is active social media user.  Majority is active follower of news.  Majority uses traditional media to get news.  Majority reads e-newspaper and blogs.  Majority, 91% thinks social media is a source of news and only 36% thinks social media is a better source of news than traditional media.  Majority 21% is against censorship of news and 34% thinks traditional media provides censored news whereas majority 53% thinks traditional media sometimes provide censored news.  Majority thinks Social Media provides uncensored news. The well known news man Rajdeep Sardesai thinks that social media is an uncensored source of news because there are no filters and that’s its strength and weakness.