3. Cyber Crime
Cyber Crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers
and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cyber crime also
includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet.
For example: Hate crimes, Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit
card account thefts are considered to be cyber crimes when the
illegal activities are committed through the use of a computer and
4. The latest Definition…
Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against individuals
or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally
harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental
harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern
telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails,
notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)”.
Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and the financial
health.Issues surrounding these types of crimes have become high-
profile, particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright
infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are
also problems of privacy when confidential information is
intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise.
- Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar ( 2011)
5. What is Child Grooming ?
Child grooming is befriending and establishing an emotional
connection with a child, and sometimes the family, to lower the
child's inhibitions for child sexual abuse. It lures minors into
trafficking of children, illicit businesses such as child prostitution,
or the production of child pornography.
6. Cyber Crime
The rapid growth of the internet, smart phone and computer
technology over the past few years has led to the growth in new
forms of crime-dubbed cyber crime- throughout the world. Based
on statistics on the various forms of cyber crime and other
evidence which in form of cyber crime pose the most serious threat
to individuals and business today.
Cyber crime is the new breed of crime, which is either perpetrated
using computers, or is otherwise related to them. Its origin can be
traced to the growing dependence on computers in modern life.
Cyber crime has assumed sinister implications today as everything
from microwave ovens and refrigerators to nuclear power plants is
being run on computers.
7. Cyber Crime
Today, the world is moving towards a point where everything from
banking stock exchanges, are traffic control, telephones to electric
power, health care, welfare and education depends on software.
This exponential growth, and the increase in the capacity and
accessibility of computers coupled with the decrease in cost, has
brought about revolutionary changes in every aspect of human
civilization, including crime.
8. Specific forms Cyber Crime…
1. Data Diddling:
Data diddling is one of the most common ways to perform a
computer crime. It involves altering key production data on the
computer system in some unauthorized way. Data diddlers often
are found changing grades in university files and falsifying input
records on bank transactions.
2. The Trojan Horse:
The Trojan horse is a procedure for adding concealed instructions
to a computer program so that it will still work but will also perform
unauthorized duties. For example, a bank worker can cleverly alter
a program that contains thousands of lines of code by adding a
small “patch” that instructs the program not to withdraw money
from a certain account !!!
9. Specific forms Cyber Crime…
3. Salami Shaving:
Salami shaving involves altering programs so that many small
rupees amounts- say, a few paise worth of interest payments/
withdrawals - are shaved from a large number of selected
transactions or accounts and deposited in another account.
The victims of a salami-shaving scheme generally are unaware that
their funds have been tapped, because the amount taken from
each individual is trivial. The recipient of the salami shaving,
however, benefits from the aggregation of these small amounts,
10. Specific forms Cyber Crime…
Super zapping is a technique made possible by a special program
available on most computer systems - a program that bypasses all
system controls when the computer crashes and cannot be
restarted with normal recovery procedures.
This program, in effect, is a “master key” that can provide access to
any part of the system. The super zap program is a highly privileged
“disaster aid” that very few computer system professionals are
authorized to use. In the wrong hands, it can be used to perform
almost any unauthorized task.
11. Specific forms Cyber Crime…
Trapdoors are diagnostic tools, used in the development of systems
programs, that enable programmers to gain access to various parts
of the computer system. Before the programs are marketed, these
tools are supposed to be removed.
Occasionally, however, some blocks of diagnostic code are
overlooked. Thus, a person using the associated systems program
may get unauthorized views of other parts of the computer system.
Fraud and financial crimes…
Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact
intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something
which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining
a benefit by altering in an unauthorized way.
This requires little technical expertise and is common form of theft
by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data,
or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized
Fraud and financial crimes…
Altering or deleting stored data:
Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to
conceal unauthorized transactions. This is difficult to detect.
Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems,
including bank fraud, carding, identity theft, extortion, and theft of
A variety of internet scams target consumers and businesses.
Government officials and Information Technology security
specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet
problems and server scans since early 2001. But there is a growing
concern among government officials that such intrusions are part
of an organized effort by cyber terrorists, foreign intelligence
services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical
A cyber terrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a
government or organization to advance his or her political or social
objectives by launching a computer-based attack against
computers, networks, or the information stored on them.
Cyber-extortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer
system is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of
service or other attacks by malicious hackers. These hackers
demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks and to
According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyber
extortionists are increasingly attacking corporate websites and
networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding
payments to restore their service.
Obscene or offensive content:
The content of websites and other electronic communications may
be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons. In
some instances these communications may be legal !!!
The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies
greatly between countries, and even within nations. It is a sensitive
area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating
between groups with strong beliefs !!!
Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way,
harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at
specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race, religion
and nationality. This often occurs in chat rooms, through
newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties.