The purpose of evaluating training is to help with future
decisions about the organizations training program. Using
evaluation, the organization may identify a need to modify
the training and gain information about the kinds of
changes needed. The organization may decide to expand
on successful areas of training and cut back on training
that has not delivered significant benefits.
4. Principles of Training
1. Clear objectives: The objectives and scope of
training should be clearly defined. A comparison of
operational requirements and existing human
resource skill will help to determine the specific
training needs of employees
2. Training policy: Such a policy should specify who is
responsible for training, what is to be spent in
3. Motivation: Employees tend to be more responsive
to training programs when they feel the need to
5. 4. Reinforcement: Learning is more effective when there
is reinforcement in the forms of rewards and punishments.
Rewards or positive reinforcements are more effective in
changing behavior than punishments or negative
5. Organized material: Training material should be properly
organized. Training material should be prepared by
training section in consultation with line supervisors.
6. Learning periods: Several short sessions spread over a
long period, enable the trainee to learn, reinforce and
6. 7. Preparing the instructor: The instructor or trainer is the
key figure in a training program.
8. Feedback: Trainees should be provide information on
how much they have learnt and how well they are doing.
9. Practice: Practice makes man perfect. Skills that are
practiced often are better learned and less easily
forgotten. Therefore, trainees should be allowed
10. Appropriate techniques: The methods and processes
of training should be related directly to the needs and
objectives of the organization.
7. Need for Evaluating Training Effectiveness
It is necessary to evaluate the extent to which training
programmers have achieved the aims for which they were
Such an evaluation would provide useful information about
the effectiveness of training as well as about the design of
future training programs.
Evaluation enables an organization to monitor the training
program and also to update or modify in future programs
8. Types of evaluation
Evaluating the Training addresses how one determines
whether the goals or objectives were met and what
impact the training had on actual performance on the job.
1. Formative evaluation provides ongoing feedback to the
curriculum designers and developers to ensure that what
is being created really meets the needs of the intended
2. Process evaluation provides information about what
occurs during training. This includes giving and receiving
3. Outcome evaluation determines whether or not the
desired results (e.g., what participants are doing) of
applying new skills were Achieved in the short-term.
4. Impact evaluation determines how the results of the
training affect the strategic goal.
Levels of Training Evaluation
Level1: evaluate reactions.
Did the trainees like the program, the trainers, the
Did they think the course was useful?
What improvement can they suggest?
Distribute and analyze questionnaire
Level2: evaluate learning
To what extent do trainees have greater knowledge or
skills after the training program than they did before?
10. Level3:evaluate behavior
Are trainees behaving differently on the job after training?
Are they using skills and knowledge they learned in
Collect performance data from
11. Level4: evaluating results
Is the organization or unit better because of training?
13. Methods of Evaluation
Several methods can be employed to collect data on the outcomes of
training. Some of these are:
The opinions and judgments of trainers, superiors and peers.
Asking the trainees to fill up evaluation forms
Using a questionnaire to know the reactions of trainees
Giving oral and written tests to trainees to ascertain how far they
Arranging structured interviews with the trainees
Comparing trainees performance on-the-job before and after training
Studying profiles and career developments charts of trainees
Measuring levels of productivity, wastage, costs, absenteeism’s and
employee turnover after training
Trainees comments and reactions during the training period, and
Cost benefit analysis of the training program
Feedback: After the evaluation, the situation should be analyzed to
identify the possible causes for a difference between the expected
outcomes and actual outcomes.
For organization to achieve the best from training and
development initiates there must be deeper
understanding on the need for training evaluation.
It is the responsibility of the organization to constantly
carry evaluates the training programs and techniques
implemented so as to establish how effective and efficient
it is for both the organization and the individual.