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Tourism Impacts on the Environment.pptx

  1. Tourism Impacts on the Environment Presented by : Ms. Chrisdie L. Flores
  2. Learning Outcomes  Explain the concept of the environment;  Identify the differentiate its components;  Identify the causes of such impact;  Enumerate the positive impacts of tourism on the environment; and  Enumerate the negative impacts of tourism on the environment.
  3. The Concept of Environment The scope of the concept of environment covers the following aspects (Swarbrooke 1999): 1. Natural environment (e.g., caves, mountains, beaches, seas, coasts, beaches) 2. Wildlife (flora and fauna) 3. Farms 4. Built environment (e.g., infrastructure, villages and cities, buildings)
  4. The Concept of Environment The scope of the concept of environment covers the following aspects (Swarbrooke 1999): 5. Natural resources (climate, water, air) 6. Weather/Climate 7. Natural phenomena (eclipses, volcanic eruptions, animal migration, aurora borealis, tides)
  5. The Concept of Environment  According to, there are two major types of ecosystems: terrestrial and aquatic.  Terrestrial ecosystems include forests, desert, grassland, and mountain ecosystems.
  6. The Concept of Environment  Forest ecosystems are ecosystem in which there is an abundance of flora and fauna in relatively small space, or where the density of living organisms is quite high.  Forest ecosystems may be tropical evergreen forests (ruled by tall trees), tropical deciduous (shrubs and dense bushes), temperate evergreen forest (trees, mosses, and ferns),
  7. The Concept of Environment  Temperate deciduous forest (trees with leaves shed during the winter months), and the taiga (situated just before the arctic regions, defined by evergreen conifers).  Forest ecosystems may be used for a variety of tourism or leisure activities, including camping, hunting, and orienteering.
  8. The Concept of Environment  Desert ecosystems are located in regions that receive an annual rainfall less than 25 inches.  They occupy about 17% of all the land on our planet.  They are characterized by extremely high temperature, low water availability, intense sunlight, and constantly scarce fauna and flora.
  9. The Concept of Environment  Vegetation consists mainly of shrubs, bushes, few grasses, and rare trees, with their stems modified to conserve water as much as possible.  Desert ecosystems may be utilized for dune bashing, caravanning, or motor rallies.
  10. The Concept of Environment  Grasslands are located in the tropical and temperate regions.  The main plants are grasses, plants, and legumes that belong to the composite family.  A lot of grazing animals, insectivores, and herbivores inhabit the grassland.
  11. The Concept of Environment  The main types of grasslands ecosystems are savana (tropical grassland, which are dry seasonally and have few individual trees) and prairies.  They support a large number of predators and grazers.
  12. The Concept of Environment  Prairies are temperate grasslands which only have different types of grasses.  Grasslands offer camping and hunting opportunities.
  13. The Concept of Environment  Mountain ecosystems provide diverse habitats for large number of animals and plants.  High altitude mountains are homes to thick-furred animals, who hibernate in the winter season.
  14. The Concept of Environment  Lower slopes are covered with coniferous forests.  Mountains could be used for mountaineering, skiing, rock-wall climbing, base jumping, camping, and the like.
  15. The Concept of Environment  Aquatic ecosystems are either marine (saltwater) or freshwater ecosystems.
  16. The Concept of Environment  Marine ecosystems cover about 71% of the earth’s surface and 97% of the planet’s water.  Marine ecosystems should be oceanic, profundal, inter-tidal estuaries, and coral reefs, salt marshes, and hydrothermal vents.  Oceanic is relatively the shallow part of oceans which lies on the continental shelf.
  17. The Concept of Environment  Profundal refers to deep or bottom water part of the sea.  Many fish and other marine animals live in marine ecosystems.  Marine ecosystems may be used for such tourism activities as sailing, diving, snorkeling, fishing, parasailing, jet skiing, and many other water activities.
  18. The Concept of Environment  Freshwater ecosystems cover only 0.8% of Earth’s surface and contain 0.009% of the total water.  Three basic kinds of freshwater ecosystems are lentic (slow-moving or still water);  Such as lakes or ponds; lotic (fast-moving), such as streams and rivers, and wetlands in which the soil is saturated for lengthy period of time.
  19. The Concept of Environment  These ecosystems are home to reptiles, amphibians, and about 40% of fish species.  Turbulent waters contain a greater concentration of dissolved oxygen, which can support greater biodiversity than slow-moving waters.  Fresh water ecosystems may be used for fishing, camping, sailing, white-water rafting, canoeing, and the like.
  20. The Concept of Environment  Since tourism could exist in most of these ecosystems, ecosystems are also prone to tourism- induced impacts.  Furthermore, ecosystems are interlinked; impacts on one will be felt in the others.
  21. The Concept of Environment  For example, land clearing to build a theme park in a forest could cause soil erosion, which could be washed by heavy rain and cause siltation in rivers.  Silt and other pollutants eventually reach the sea.
  22. The Concept of Environment  The environment plays a significant role in the tourism industry.  Several tourism forms and activities are nature- related, such as ecotourism, wildlife tourism, (hunting and photo safari), ski tourism., mountain tourism, cruise tourism, dive tourism, coastal tourism, marine tourism, trekking, camping, and glamping.
  23. Causes of Impacts of Tourism  The impact may be caused by: o tourist behavior o Construction o the quality of infrastructure o the dynamics between tourism supply and demand o Design of facilities and infrastructure, and their siting.  Other cause of impact is violation of tourism development guidelines by developers and ineffective law enforcement.
  24. Causes of Impacts of Tourism  Tourists can impact the environment through their behavior, such as throwing trash, rowdiness, or spitting.  They could actually affect the environment by their mere presence.  Humans emit moisture through their breaths and body heat.
  25. Causes of Impacts of Tourism  This moisture can increase humidity in confined spaces.  Other causes of impact are poor design and poor choice of location or siting.
  26. Causes of Impacts of Tourism  For example, our malls and office buildings are constructed right beside the main thoroughfares, which cause traffic build-up especially during rush hours.  In Malaysia, the major highways are flanked by service roads, which avoid the situation described above.
  27. Causes of Impacts of Tourism  Similarly, airports built very close to the city center, such as Ninoy Aquino International Airport, will be prone to traffic congestion.  For this reason, many international airports are constructed on sparsely populated locations or built on dedicated reclaimed land, or man-made island to isolate their effects.
  28. Causes of Impacts of Tourism  Improper siting  Imposition of guidelines
  29. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT  Tourism development has an effect on wildlife and plants, environmental quality, topography, and even climate change. Hunter and Green (1996) in Swasbrooke (1999) o Disruption of breeding habits of animals o The killing of animals in hunting or a source of souvenirs o Migration of animals o Trampling of vegetation o Clearing of vegetation to accommodate tourist facilities o Creation of sanctuary for animal conservation
  30. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT  Tourism also produces pollution of various types (air, water, noise, and light)  Contributes to erosion  Depletion of water  Fossil fuels  Fish stocks  There are visual impacts of tourism caused by litter, sewage, and algal blooms.
  31. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT Huttche, White, and Flores (2002) observed the following effects of tourism on coastal areas: o Bacterial contamination o Siltation from dredging or construction o Pollution and excess nutrients from poor waste disposal and sewerage o Overfishing to provide fish to tourists o Coral breakage from diving and anchoring, or for sale as souvenirs.
  32. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT Land Degradation Defined as “the temporary or permanent lowering of the productive capacity of land”. Wastes Tourists and tourism establishments contribute to environmental degradation through the production of wastes.
  33. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT Pollution The major forms of pollution are air, water, light, visual and noise. Air pollution is caused by the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Light pollution which according to Globe at Night (n.d.), is the “excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial light.”
  34. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT Pollution Noise pollution includes roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. Visual pollution or the loss of aesthetic appeal is caused by the presence of eyesores, such as overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms, open storage of trash or litter.
  35. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT Pollution Water Pollution is caused by discharging wastewater from commercial and industrial sources into surface waters.
  36. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT Climate Change Water Stress Habitat Fragmentation Animal Species Extinction
  37. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT Tourism Impacts on Coral Reefs Beach Encroachment and Crowding
  38. POSITIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE ENVIRONMENT Environmental Quality and Infrastructure Improvement Species Regeneration