EN10V-IVg-3: Get familiar with research terms

Teacher en Misamis Occidental National High School
7 de Feb de 2017

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EN10V-IVg-3: Get familiar with research terms

  1. Research or Non Research • Identify the following terms or abbreviations if they are related to research or not. Write Research or Not. 1. Bibliography 2. Conclusion 3. Individual 4. Affidavit 5. Income 6. Framework 7. Amortization 8. Dehydration 9. Variable 10. Democracy
  2. •EN10V-IVg-30: Get familiar with technical terms used in research
  3. Common Latin and Non-English Abbreviations Used in Research
  4. A.D. Anno Domini • Used to date years by reckoning the date of Christ's birth, as opposed to B.C., the years "Before Christ." • Literally, Anno Domini means "In the year of the Lord." • Remember two important notes! Anno Domini does not mean "After Death." (If it did, there would be a thirty-three year gap between 1 BC and the crucifixion thirty-three years later.) • Also note the politically correct tendency is to use the abbreviation CE (Common Era) and BCE (Before Common Era). These abbreviations are an attempt to avoid the religious connotations of the Latin abbreviation. In spite of the name change, BCE and CE still divide history according to the life of Christ, but CE and BCE may be less offensive (or at least less ethnocentric) to a non-Christian audience.
  5. cf. confere • A Latin imperative suggesting the reader should compare and contrast one statement or idea with another one. • Literally, “compare.” Researchers often follow the abbreviation with a reference to an author or page number, suggesting the reader look for similarities and differences between what a previous citation has said with the subsequent source listed. • Usage: Some scholars think Hitler’s main camp used genocidal ideas found in earlier anti-Semitic literature (Smith 42), but others argue Hitler himself was the primary originator (cf. Jones 98).
  6. c. circa • Used by historians to show that a date is approximate. Literally, the word means "around," and it is sometimes abbreviated "ca." • Usage: Shortly after Henry IV seized the throne from Richard II, Geoffrey Chaucer died (c.1400 A.D.), perhaps due to old age.
  7. etc. et cetera • "And so on." This is the one Latin abbreviation most students already know, and the one they tend to overuse. • Do note that, since et already means and, it is redundant to write, "and etc." Literally, the Latin phrase means "and other things." • Usage: The problems of the Balkan Republics are numerous, including insufficient electric power, poor highways, rampant unemployment, hostile neighbors, etc.
  8. e.g. exempli gratia. • "For example." Literally, "free as an example." • Usage: "We have numerous problems to deal with before reforming welfare policies, e.g., the trade deficit, Medicare, and social security."
  9. et pass. et passim • And also found throughout the subsequent pages or sections. Literally, “And in the following.” • The abbreviation typically appears after a citation of a single page, suggesting the reader look at that page first and then skim the material following for further discussion. • Usage: For further discussion of this important issue, see Smith 42 et passim.
  10. et al. et alii • means “and others”, and abbreviates people in a list • Usage: If David et al. get the financing, we can move forward with the prototype.
  11. ib./ ibid. ibidem. • "In the same passage or page quoted above." • Literally, "In the same place." • Usage: "One physicist compared the behavior of quarks to bowling pins (Jones 35). He also indicated that the 'Charm' quark was like a 'bowling ball' (ibid.) due to the way it. . . ."
  12. i.e. id est. • "That is more precisely." • Literally, "it is." • Commonly used to refine a general statement or provide additional information. • Usage: "Jerry's girlfriend always managed to turn the conversation toward children, i.e., the possibility of having children together; i.e., the possibility of having legitimate children together; i.e., toward the subject of marriage."
  13. sic. • Indicates a misspelling or error in a quoted source, in order to verify to the reader that the researcher did not create a typographical error, but instead exactly reproduces the way the word or statement appeared in the original material. • Literally, "yes" or "even thus" in Latin. • Usage: There are, according to the writings of seven-year old Andrew, "Manee wayes of riting words" [sic].
  14. Ph. D. Philosophiae Doctor. • "Doctor (or Doctorate) of Philosophy." • It can refer to the individual as a title, or to the degree itself. • Note that it is redundant to write, "Dr. McGillicutty is a Ph. D." unless the writer seeks to distinguish him from a medical doctor such as an M.D. • Usage: "Joe Bob McGillicutty, Ph. D., is on the committee." Or, "McGillicutty earned his Ph. D. in art history."
  15. Get familiar with the research technical terms used in the sentences. 1. It is essentially a food cheese rather than a mere condiment, and 1 lb of it will furnish as much nourishing material as 24 lb cf the best beefsteak. 2. Try using easy-to-read fonts; e.g. Georgia and Verdana. 3. Our backup drives (i.e. drives F and G) are new. 4. Chapman, Color Key to North American Birds (New York, 1903); Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America (ibid, 1895) and The Warblers of North America (ibid, 1907), with notable coloured illustrations by L. 5. “Lewis et al. (2006) demonstrated teamwork environment is critical to success.”
  16. Get familiar with the research technical terms used in the sentences. 1. Any facial response (e.g., a surprised blink of both eyes) was recorded. 2. Schweiger et al. applied the neural network method. 3. In every case Angle 1 was greater than Angle 2—i.e., every viewer perceived a circle. 4. The independent variabls are treated in manual operation. 5. John Hawkins, Ph. D. reported that 1 out of 10 respondents like the taste. 6. AD 1453, the city of Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman empire. 7. Beowulf was written c. 1500 under the pagan world in Scandinavia. 8. Barbus cf. holotaenia" implies that the specimen is believed to be Barbus holotaenia but the actual identification cannot be certain. 9. When assessing academic studies, media members are often confronted by pages not only full of numbers, but also loaded with concepts, see Gonzales 25, et passim. 10. Tennis, soccer, baseball, etc., are outdoor games