It is naturally grown in many countries of the tropical and
sub-tropical belt in South and Central America and Asia. It
grows in different altitude in different climate and in
different soil and is looked upon as an international drink
consumed throughout the world.
Ethiopia is a country in Africa where coffee was
The coffee trees are the genus coffea
which belongs to the Rubiacea
family. The coffee plant is an evergreen
plant or a bush which is grown
commercially in tropical climate
throughout the world. It requires not only
a hot climate but also a high rainfall, a
rich soil and a relatively high altitude.
The coffee plant is unable to survive
wide variation of temperature or any
other condition. www.hospitalitynu.blogspot.co
Types of coffee
1. Coffea Arabica- it is one of the best quality coffees.
Its beans are uniform, bold, regular sized and have
good flavor. It is grown in india, brazil, Colombia, coata
rica, Kenya and Jamaica.
2. Coffea Canephora-(coffee robusta) it is the second
best type of coffee. The beans from the plant are
usually smaller of a lower quality with neutral flavor. It
gives higher yield than Arabica. It is grown in east and
3. Coffea Liberica- produces third main type of coffee.
The beans are arge in size but lack in quality. It is grown
in Malaysia and Guyana.
Processing of coffee- there are two types of coffee
processing depending on the country in which
processing is carried out, those countries which has
abundant water uses wet method of processing coffee
beans and those who have scarcity of water uses dry
method of coffee processing. www.hospitalitynu.blogspot.c
Coffee brewing methods
Instant method As the name
suggests, it is the quickest and easiest
method of making coffee in this
method, the soluble coffee solids are
easily mixed with hot water. It can be
made just before it is served by
pouring freshly boiled water over the
measured instant coffee powder. The
coffee dissolves instantly, it can be
served with milk. Sugar is offered
separately. This method is suitable for
making coffee in small and large
quantities. Regular and decaffeinated
styles are available.
Saucepan or jug method
This method can be adopted for the
preparation of small and large quantity
of coffee. A measured quantity of
coarsely ground coffee is placed in a
saucepan or jug, and freshly boiled
water is poured over it and covered
with a lid. it is allowed to infuse for few
minutes and then strained, it is served
with hot or cold milk. Sugar is offered
La cafetiere method (plunger)
This method is simple and most suitable for
making small quantity. The cafetiere
equipment has a glass container with a lip
and a lid with a plunger unit. The lid holds
the plunger in a position. In this method,
measured quantity of medium coffee grind is
placed and freshly boiled water added to the
coffee. It is then stirred and covered with the
lid and plunger unit and allowed to infuse.
During this time the coffee grains will rise to
the top of the liquid. After this, if the plunger
is moved slightly, the coffee grains will fall to
the bottom of the container. The plunger unit
is pushed down the glass container before
serving. The infusion time is normally 3-5
minutes which depends on the temperature
of water. It is served with or without milk.
Sugar is offered separately.
The percolator consists of a pot with a small
chamber at its bottom, close to a heat source. A
vertical tube connects the bottom chamber with top
of the percolator where a measured quantity of
coarse ground coffee is placed on the filter.
Water is poured there up to water mark level
into the chamber near the heat source.
When the equipment is switched on, water
heats up steadily and starts boiling. Hot water
rises through the pipe, infuses the ground coffee,
seeps through the filter and drips to the bottom
chamber and gets mixed with water in it.
The hot water with coffee in the bottom chamber
continues to rise up and infuse the coffee on the
filter and the cycle continues.
Vacuum infusion method
This method of making coffee is also
termed as 'cona' coffee. The cona
machine has two bowls, one set over the
other and a filter piece made of metal or
plastic and a tube connecting two bowls.
The bowls are made of either glass or
metal. The upper bowl is usually made of
In this method of making coffee, the lower
bowl is filled with hot water to the level
marked. The upper bowl is then set over
the lower bowl properly. The filter is then
placed in the upper bowl, ensuring it is
placed correctly. The measured quantity of
ground coffee is then added to the upper
bowl according to the quantity of water
taken. The machine is then switched on.
This is the traditional method of making
coffee. In South India, especially in Tamil
Nadu, every house has a small coffee
filter to make excellent filter coffee. Filter
coffee can be made in individual cups or
in bulk. The coffee filter equipment has
two pieces of containers with the filter
unit (perforated plate) in between. The
equipment should be thoroughly cleaned
and rinsed with hot water. The containers
and filter must be properly positioned.
Freshly ground coffee is measured and
placed in the filter which is at the bottom
of the top container and freshly boiled
water is poured in the top container. www.hospitalitynu.blogspot.co
Infusion takes place and the coffee liquid m
'Pour through filter method
This method is suitable in commercial
operations. Most coffee houses and popular
restaurants use electric filter coffee machine
to make coffee. Before the filter machine is
used, one should ensure that the filter is
thoroughly cleaned/ new filter paper is
placed. Freshly drawn water is poured to the
level indicated on the jar. Fresh ground
coffee, which normally comes in vacant
sealed packet sufficient for a single brew, is
added when the machine is switched on. The
hot water infuses with the coffee powder and
filters into the serving container. It takes
approximately 3 minutes for each brew.
Individual filter method
When making a cup of coffee by this
method, an individual filter is placed in
a cup. Freshly boiled water is then
poured into the individual filter to the
required level. The liquid then infuses
with the ground coffee and drips into
the cup. A lid should be placed over
the water in the filter to help retain the
temperature. Time of making is
approximately 3-4 minutes.
An espresso machine is used to make this type
of coffee. Hot steam is passed through very fine
ground coffee and is allowed to infuse under
pressure. It makes excellent coffee quickly in
individual cups. This method of making coffee is
quicker compared to any other method and
individual cup of coffee are made in seconds.
Some machines have capacity of making 300-
400 cups of coffee/ hour. This method is
originated in Italy.
If the coffee is served black, it is called
expresso. It is served in a small cup.if piping hot
milk is added to the black coffee, the expresso
becomes cappucino. The operator must follow
the manufacturer’s instruction.
FAULTS in coffee
Bitter coffee: Coffee tastes bitter if —
The quantity of coffee grind used is
more than required
Infusion temperature is too high and
preparation time too long.
There are sediments in the coffee
Weak Coffee: coffee is weak and lacks
Insufficient quantity of coffee grind is
Incorrect coffee grind is used
Water has not reached the right
Infusion temperature is low and the
preparation time is too short
Poorly stored or old coffee is used
Flat coffee: Coffee becomes flat if-
• All points mentioned for weak coffee
• It is prepared beforehand and left in
the container for long time
• It is prepared and stored in dirty
• It is reheated