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Ultrasound Machine-A Revolution In Medical Imaging

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Ultrasound Machine-A Revolution In Medical Imaging

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What is medical imaging?
Why ultrasound imaging is required?
History of ultrasound
What is ultrasound
Physical definition
Medical definition

Ultrasound production
The Returning echo
Doppler effect
What is Doppler ultrasound
Principles of instrumentation in ultrasonography
Transmitter and receiver circuits of ultrasound
Mechanical assembly of ultrasound machine
Manufacturing companies of USG
Sonoscape S40 color Doppler ultrasound system
Clinical applications of ultrasound
Future of ultraso

What is medical imaging?
Why ultrasound imaging is required?
History of ultrasound
What is ultrasound
Physical definition
Medical definition

Ultrasound production
The Returning echo
Doppler effect
What is Doppler ultrasound
Principles of instrumentation in ultrasonography
Transmitter and receiver circuits of ultrasound
Mechanical assembly of ultrasound machine
Manufacturing companies of USG
Sonoscape S40 color Doppler ultrasound system
Clinical applications of ultrasound
Future of ultraso

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Ultrasound Machine-A Revolution In Medical Imaging

  1. 1. Ultrasound Machine-A Revolution In Medical Imaging 1
  2. 2. Contents:- 1. What is medical imaging? 2. Why ultrasound imaging is required? 3. History of ultrasound 4. What is ultrasound A. Physical definition B. Medical definition 5. Ultrasound production 6. The Returning echo 7. Doppler effect 8. What is Doppler ultrasound 9. Principles of instrumentation in ultrasonography 10. Transmitter and receiver circuits of ultrasound 11. Mechanical assembly of ultrasound machine 12. Manufacturing companies of USG 13. Sonoscape S40 color Doppler ultrasound system 14. Clinical applications of ultrasound 15. Future of ultrasound 16. Conclusion 2
  3. 3. What is Medical Imaging? It is a technique and process used to create image of the internal as well as external human body parts for clinical purpose . 3
  4. 4. Why ULTRASOUND Imaging Is Required? • Ultrasound imaging provides a pictorial status of particular organ which is to be treated • Ultrasound makes a surgical targets more clear and precise • Ultrasound provides a pictorial status of fetus development right from 4th week to 36th- 38th week • Ultrasound make therapeutic targets easy to detect and treat 4
  5. 5. HISTORY OF ULTRASOUND…………….. •In 1880 brothers Jacques et Pierre Curie noted that the electricity is created in the crystal of quartz under mechanical vibration. This phenomenon was described as the piezoelectric effect. •Diagnosis medical application in use since late 1950’s like visualizing cerebral chamber. 5
  6. 6. What is Ultrasound :Physical Definition • Ultrasound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave with a frequency exceeding the upper limit of human hearing, which is 20,000 Hz or 20 kHz. 6
  7. 7. What is Ultrasound : Medical Definition • Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound is the use of high frequency sound to aid in diagnosis and treatment of patient. • Frequency Ranges Used In Medical Ultrasound are 2.5-40MHZ 7
  8. 8. Ultrasound Production:  Transducer contains piezoelectric elements/crystals which produce the ultrasound pulses (transmit 1% of the time)  These elements convert electrical energy into a mechanical ultrasound wave 8
  9. 9.  Reflected echoes return to the scan head where the piezoelectric elements convert the ultrasound wave back into an electrical signal  The electrical signal is then processed by the ultrasound system 9
  10. 10. Doppler Effect 10 • The Doppler effect is the apparent change in frequency detected when the sound is moving relative to the hearer. It is important to note that the effect does not result because of an actual change in the frequency of the source.
  11. 11. Modes of ultrasound  A-mode (A=amplitude) The amplitude of reflected ultrasound is displayed on an oscilloscope screen  M-mode (M=motion) It reflects a motion of the heart structures over time Due to its excellent temporal resolution (high sampling rate), M-mode is extremely valuable for accurate evaluation of rapid movements.  B-mode (B=brightness) (2D in echocardiography) This is now the essential imaging modality in the diagnostic ultrasound. An amplitude of the reflected ultrasound signals is converted into a gray scale image  D-mode (D=Doppler) This imaging mode is based on the Doppler effect ie. change in frequency (Doppler shift) caused by the reciprocal movement of the sound generator and the observer. 11
  12. 12. What is Doppler Ultrasound? • A Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can be used to estimate our blood flow through blood vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off circulating red blood cells. APPLICATIONS: • Blood clots • Poorly functioning valves in leg veins (venous insufficiency) • Heart valve defects and congenital heart disease • A blocked artery (arterial occlusion) • Decreased blood circulation into legs (peripheral artery disease) • Bulging arteries (aneurysms) • Narrowing of an artery, such as in our neck (carotid artery stenosis) 12
  13. 13. Principles of Instrumentation In Ultrasonography 13 • All ultrasound scanners consist of similar components that perform the same key functions. • One of these is a transmitter that sends pulses to the transducer, a receiver and a processor that detects and amplifies the backscattered energy.
  14. 14. Transmitter circuit of ultrasound Around transistor T1 (BC549) generates an 8MHz signal, which serves as input to the first decade counter built around IC1. The decade counter divides the oscillator frequency to 800 kHz. The output of IC1 is fed to the second CD4017 decade counter (IC2), which further divides the frequency to 80 kHz. The flip-flop (IC3) divides 80kHz signal by 2 to give 40kHz signal, which is transmitted by ultrasonic transducer TX. 14
  15. 15. Receiver circuit of ultrasound It is necessary to down-convert the 40kHz signal into 4kHz to bring it in the audible range. The receiver’s transducer unit (RX) detects the transmitted 40kHz signal, which is amplified by the amplifier built around transistor BC549 (T2). The amplified signal is fed to decade counter IC4, which divides the frequency to 4 kHz. Transistor T3 (SL100) amplifies the 4kHz signal to drive the speaker. 15
  16. 16. Mechanical assembly Of Ultrasound Machine 1.Transducer: Probe Pulse Control 2.CPU (Central Processing Unit) 3.Key Board 4.Display 5.Storage device 6.Printer 16
  17. 17. Images 17
  18. 18. Different components of US Machine 18 The following parts: 1. Transducer (probe) • The probe is the mouth and ears of the ultrasound machine. • In the probe, there are one or more quartz crystals called piezoelectric crystals. • When an electric current is applied to these crystals, they change shape rapidly.
  19. 19. Different components of US Machine 19 Transducer (pulse controls) • The operator, called the ultrasonographer, changes the amplitude, frequency and duration of the pulses emitted from the transducer probe
  20. 20. Different components of US Machine 20 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) • The CPU is the brain of an ultrasound machine. • The CPU is a computer that contains the microprocessor, memory, amplifiers and power supplies for the microprocessor and transducer probe. • The transducer receives electrical currents from the CPU and sends electrical pulses that are created by returning echoes.
  21. 21. Different components of US Machine 21 3.Keyboard/Cursor • Ultrasound machines have a keyboard and a cursor. • The keyboard allows the operator to add notes and to take measurements of the image.
  22. 22. Different components of US Machine 22 5 Display • Displays the image from the ultrasound data processed by the CPU. • This image can be either in black-and-white or color, depending upon the model of the ultrasound machine
  23. 23. Different components of US Machine 23 5. Disk Storage • The processed data and/or images can be stored on disks. • These disks can be hard disks, floppy disks, compact disks (CDs), or digital video disks (DVDs). • Most of the time, ultrasound scans are filled on floppy disks and stored with the patient's medical records.
  24. 24. Different components of US Machine 24 6. Printers Most ultrasound machines have printers which are thermal . These can be used to capture a printed picture of the image from the monitor.
  25. 25. Working of the USG machine: 25
  26. 26. MANUFACTURING COMPANIES OF USG 26 MANUFACTURER MODEL COST (Rs) 1.PHILIPS HEALTHCARE EPIQ 7 243754.00 2.GE HEALTHCARE LOGIQ E9 225443.00 3.SIEMENS ACUSON P500 211553.00 4.CARESTREAM HEALTH CARESTREAM TOUCH ULTRASOUND 149239.00 5.TOSHIBA MEDICAL SYSTEMS CORPORATION EB1970UK endobronchial 148255.00 6.HITACHI MEDICAL CORPORATION Aplio™ 500/400/300 175358.00 :
  27. 27. SONOSCAPE S40 COLOR DOPPLER ULTRASOUND SYSTEM TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Full Digital Super-wide Band Beam Former, 2. Digital Dynamic Focusing, 3. Variable Aperture and Dynamic Tracing, 4. Wide Band Dynamic Range, 5. Multi-Beam Parallel Processing designed to comply with applicable international standards and regulations, ensuring the safety and availability of this product. 6. Based on the computer technology and Linux operation system, which make the system more flexible and stable. 7. User Friendly. 27
  28. 28. Different ultrasound probes  C362, convex high-density probe for adults' examinations Field of use: Abdominal examinations, obstetrics,  L742, linear high-density probe for examinations of vessels Field of use: Abdominal examinations, pediatry,  5P1, sectorial phased probe for pediatric examinations Field of use: Cardiology, pediatry  МРТЕЕ, transesophageal probe Field of use: Cardiology, surgery.  28
  29. 29. FURTHER MORE DETAILS… ADVANTAGES: • New generation digital front-end technology • Spatial compound imaging • Post-processing technology • Tissue harmonic imaging • High pulse repetition frequency • Panoramic imaging • 4D imaging • Graphic diagnosis icon • Touch screen with human-computer interaction technology • Keyboard lifting system DISADVANTAGES: • Bulky • Heat development and cavity formation • Sensors having minimum sensing distance • Targets of low density like foam and cloth tend to absorb sound energy, these materials may be difficult to sense at long range • Temperature, pressure, humidity, air turbulence affect the ultrasonic response 29
  30. 30. Clinical application of ultrasound • Anaesthesiology- Ultrasound is commonly used by anesthesiologists to guide injecting needles when placing local anaesthetic solutions near nerves • Cardiology- Echocardiography is an essential tool in cardiology, to diagnose e.g. dilatation of parts of the heart and function of heart ventricles and valves • Gastroenterology- In abdominal sonography, the solid organs of the abdomen the pancreas, aorta, inferior vena cava, liver, gall bladder, bile ducts, kidneys, and spleen are imaged. • Obstetrics- Obstetrical is commonly used during pregnancy to check on the development of the fetus. 30
  31. 31. Clinical application of ultrasound • Urology- To determine, for example, the amount of fluid retained in a patient's bladder. In a pelvic sonogram, organs of the pelvic region are imaged. This includes the uterus and ovaries or urinary bladder. Males are sometimes given a pelvic sonogram to check on the health of their bladder, the prostate, or their testicles (for example to distinguish epididymitis from testicular torsion). 31 •Gynecology- Gynecologic sonography is used extensively: To assess pelvic organs, To diagnose and manage gynecologic problems including, leiomyoma, ovarian cysts and lesions, To Identify ectopic Pregnancy, To Diagnose Gynecologic Cancer
  32. 32. The Future OF Ultrasound: HIGH POWER ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY: • New powerful, technology that is not only safe and environmentally friendly in its application but is also efficient and economical. • Reduce or eliminate the need for chemicals or heat application in a variety of industrial processes. •This innovative new technology, of low frequency, high-power ultrasound (20kHz - 1MHz), can be applied to a large number of industry processing applications including food safety related areas. •Innovative Ultrasonics is a company specializing in process development, engineering design, installation and equipment in the area of high-powered ultrasonics for new and existing industrial applications. • The use of high-power ultrasonics in industry is rapidly expanding throughout Europe and North America. 32
  33. 33. CONCLUSION: • Sonography is effective for soft tissues imaging of many different systems • Ultrasound machine is rapid ,easy to use . • Ultrasound machine is free from ionizing radiations. • Ultrasound has not only been used to made or exclude diagnoses, but it has also become the modality of choice in the imaging of both the stable and unstable pediatric patients. 33
  34. 34. REFERENCES http://www3.gehealthcare.in/en/products/categories/ultrasound http://gpsmedical.typepad.com/ http://dinesh-projects.blogspot.in/2012/04/ultrasonic-transmitter-and- receiver.html http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389210000064 http://www.meditech.cn/meditech-edu/ultrasound-scanner-2.asp http://dothealth.com/Content/Uploads/live/preview/20131220121521-Color- Doppler-Ultrasound-System-S11.jpg http://www.solutionmedical.gr/default.aspx?pageid=9413&type=product 34
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