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Black pepper_VS-221.pdf

  1. Production Technology of Black pepper by Dr. Praveen Kumar Maurya B.Sc. (Hons) Horticulture II Year Session: 2021-22 Semester: II
  2. Black Pepper Hindi Name dkyh fepZ Botanical name Piper nigrum L. Family Piperaceae Origin Indo-burma Plant Parts used Fruit (Fleshy pericarp and Hard endocarp) Important Chemical Content Piperine Ch. No. (2n) 2n=4x=52 King of Spices Ancestor of black pepper: P. wightii and P. galeatum
  3. It is the most important foreign exchange earning commodity among the Indian spices. Pepper alone contributes about 70% of total export earnings from all spices. Popularly it is known as “Black gold” because of its unique position in the international trade. About 90% of the total production of the world is in India of which about 98 % in Kerala alone. In. Maharashtra, black pepper is grown in the Konkan region. Highest productivity in the world: Thailand Highest productivity in India: Karnataka (1kg/vine)
  4. Introduction Perennial climbing vine. Type of flower: Protogyny Wild form usually dioecious but most cultivated one are gynomonoecious. Inflorescence type: Catkin Fruit type: Single seeded berry Pepper is naturally self pollinated crop due to geitnogamy Mode of pollination: Hydrophily
  5. Botany Based on growth habits, five distinct types of stem portions can be identified in the shoot system of a pepper vine: 1. Main Stem: originate from a seed or from a stem cutting. It climbs on a support with the aid of aerial or adventitious roots. 2. Runner Shoots: produced from the basal portion of the main stem, growing at right angle to the main stem, usually restricted up to 50 cm from the ground 3. Fruiting branches (Plagiotropes): are produced from the nodes of the main stem and they grow laterally, bearing the spikes. 4. Topshoots (Orthotropes): It grow vertically, profuse branching with large number of adventitious roots at the nodes. 5. Hanging shoots (Geotropes): special type of shoots which hang down and grow geotropically.
  6. Improved varieties Name Percentage Other attributes Panniyur-1 F1 hybrid between Uthirankotta × Cheriyakaniakadan 2.5kg/vine, 1200 kg/ha, more adaptable to open conditions, sensitive to excess shade, dry recovery: 35.3% oleoresin: 11.8% essential oil: 3.5% piperine 5.3% Panniyur-2 (Krishna) OP seedlings of Balankotta 4.5kg/vine, 2828 kg/ha, shade tolerant, medium sized berries, dry recovery: 35.7%, oleoresin: 10.9%, piperine: 6.6%. Panniyur-3 (Shima) F1 hybrid between Uthirankotta × Cheriyakaniyakadan 4.4kg/vine, 2169 kg/ha, excessive vegetative vigour, long spike, bold berries, prefers open condition, dry recovery: 27.8% Oleoresin: 12.6%. Piperine: 5.2% Panniyur-4 Selection from Kuthiravally type II 2.3kg/vine, 1419 kg/ha, stable in yield, performs well even under adverse conditions, dry recovery: 34.7%, oleoresin: 9.2% Panniyur-5 O.P Progeny of Perumkodi 2.75kg / vine, 3075 kg/ha, suitable for intercropping in Arecanut gardens dry recovery: 35.7%, Piperine:5.3%, Oleoresins:12.33%, essential oil:3.80% Panniyur-6 Clonal selection from Karimunda Tolerant to drought Panniyur-7 O.P Progeny of Kalluvally Tolerant to drought Pepper Research Station, Panniyur, KAU, Kerala
  7. Improved varieties Name Percentage Other attributes Sreekara A selection from Karimunda (K.S.14) 4.8kg/vine, 2352 kg/ha, tolerant to drought dry recovery 35%, piperine: 5.0%, Oleoresins: 13%, essential oils: 7% Subhakara A selection from Karimunda (K.S.27) 4.2kg/vine, 2677 kg/ha, dry recovery: 35%, piperine: 3.4%, oleoresins: 12%, essential oils:6%. Panchami A selection from Aimpiriyan coll.856 5.2 kg/vine, 8320 kg green pepper/ha, piperine 4.7% oleoresins: 12.5%, essential oil 3.4%, dry recovery 34.0% Pournami A selection from Ottaplackal type coll. No. 812 4.7 kg/vine, 7526 kg of green pepper/ha, Piperine 4.1%, oleoresins 13.87, Essential oil 3.4%, dry recovery 31%, tolerant to root knot nematode PLD-2 Clonal Selection from Kottanadan 4.7 kg per vine, 31.13% dry recovery, oleoresin 15.45%, essential oil 4.8%, piperine 3.0% Vadakkan A natural triploid Shakti OP seedlings of Perambramundi Tolerant to Phytophthora
  8. Package of Practices Soil  Pepper thrives well in humus rich virgin soils.  Fertile, well-drake, lomy soil, rich in humus are ideal.  Soil pH should be between 5.5 to 7.0  The crop is susceptible to water logging and hence is planted by preparing heap of soil on field. Climate  Native of humid tropics.  Require warm and humid climate.  High humidity helps for luxuriant crop growth and better yield.  Very high or low temperatures axe not conductive for growth,  Temperature range: 10 – 40°C.  Rainfall: Up to 200 cm.  Can be cultivated up to 1500 m above sea level,  Crop is pollinated through raindrops and hence frequent showers during flowering are beneficial
  9. Propagation Propagated vegetatively or by seeds. Commercially propagated by vegetative method (shoot cuttings/runner shoots). Cuttings with 2-3 nodes are made from vines or runners and raised in plastic bags during February-March. Pepper rapid multiplication technique: Single node roofed cutting using bamboo method is the best method with an advantage of higher multiplication rate (1:40) and good anchorage due to the presence of two root system. Planting Methods: 1. Either grown as mono crop by training on support or standards. (Planting distance 3×3 m). 2. Grown as mixed crop with coconut and arecanut. 3. Pepper vines are trained on trees like mango, cashew, jackfait, etc.
  10. Planting: a) Mono Crop: 1. Proper site is selected. 2. Pits of 60 cm3 arc dug at distance of 3 x 3 m. 3. Pits are filled with mixture of 10 to 20 kg of well-decomposed FYM, 1 kg SSP and good soil and 50 g Lindane powder.. 4. Pangara rootstocks 1.5 to 2 m long are planted in these pits a year before actual planting of pepper in August-September. 5. Pit of 45 cm3 are dug at 30 cm distance on the east and north sides of Pangara rootstock. 6. Rooted cuttings are then planted in these pits in the month of June-July. 7. Banana varieties like Lai velchi can be planted as intercrop for first three years. This helps to give shade till proper growth of pangara and also obtain additional income. b) Intercrop: 1. Two pits of 45 cm3 at 30 cm distance on east and north sides of the main crop. 2. Pits are filled as above. 3. Planting of rooted cuttings is done in the months of June-July.
  11. Manures and fertilizers : a) CPCRI (Central Plantation Crop Research Institute) Kasargod, Kerala : 10 kg FYM, 100 g N, 40 g P2O5 and 150 g K2O / vine / year. b) KKV, Dapoli: 20 kg FYM, 4 kg Neem cake, 150 g N, 75 g P2O5 and 140g K2O/ vine / year. Application: The recommended does is applied from 3rd year onwards. 1st year : 1/3rd of recommended dose. 2nd year : 2/3rd of recommended dose. Does is applied in two splits: • 1st split (1st week of September) – Full does of FYM, P2O5, K2O and 1/2 N. • 2nd split (February) – Remaining 1/2 dose of N (1/2 N). The above does should be applied in a shallow ring around the vines at a distance of 30 cm. Irrigation  Irrigation is given at an interval of 7 – 8 days in winter and 2 – 4 days during summer.  Mulching with grasses or dried leaves helps in reducing loss of soil moisture during summer months.
  12. After Care • Two diggings are given once in May-June and again in October-November. • Weeding and earthing is done for better growth and to improve soil aeration. Training and Pruning  Being a perennial climbing shrub, black pepper requires staking, training and tying as and when required during growth.  A single stem is maintained up to a height of 1 m by removing lateral branches.  In order to facilitate easy harvesting and spraying operations, the growth of vine is regulated up to a height of 7- 8 m.  Regulation of shade is done by lopping the branches of standards in order to allow optimum light for the pepper vines.
  13. Stage of harvesting depends upon the kind of pepper to be made. Harvesting Products Products Maturity at Harvest White pepper ripened fruits Black pepper fully matured berries are harvested when any one berry in cluster shows scarlet red colour Canned pepper 4-5 months after fruit set Dehydrated green pepper 10-15 days before full maturity Oleoresin, Oil 15-20 days before full maturity Pepper powder Fully mature with maximum starch Harvesting season: • Plains: December-January • Hills: January-April
  14. Yield Average yield of pepper: 800-1000 kg/ha or 2 – 3 kg berries/vine/year. Bush pepper yield: 100-150 g of dry pepper/pot/year Pepper Oil and Oleoresin:  Pepper oil is obtained by steam distillation of coarsely powered berries yielding 2 to 3.5 % oil  Pepper oleoresin is obtained by solvent extraction method by using ground pepper.  Ethyl acetate is a useful solvent for extraction.  Oleoresin gives true flavor of spice and is used in meat production, vegetables, salads, ketchups and soups.
  15. PLANT PROTECTION IN BLACK PEPPER Diseases Insect-Pests Pollu disease or Anthracnose (Collectotrichum gloeosporioides) Stunt disease-virus Slow decline or slow wilt Foot rot or quick wilt Root-knot nematode Pepper pollu bettle