### psct.pdf

1. CRITICAL THINKING AND CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
2. List down things that you expect to learn from this module
3. METHODOLOGIES • Discussion • Interactive Lecture • Individual & Group discussions • Exercise • Case Study • Video
4. At the end of this programme, you will be able to:  Explain the concept and importance of creative problem solving and critical thinking  Explain the key steps in creative problem solving process  Apply problem solving techniques and tools.  Use creative thinking techniques to generate creative and innovative solutions. OBJECTIVES
5.  Concept and importance of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking  Key steps in problem solving process  How to define and analyse a problem.  Problem analysis tool  How to generate creative and innovative solution  Creative thinking techniques  How to select the best options CONTENT OUTLINE
6. CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING THE PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
7. WHAT IS A PROBLEM? Kepner Tregoe’s: A deviation from an expected standard of performance. MacCrimmon and Taylor: A gap between a current and a desired state of affairs – i.e. a gap between where you are and where you would like to be.
8.  Current problem  Inherited problem  Stumbled problem  Hidden problem  Stated or implied problem (different problems looked into, different problems found) TYPES OF PROBLEM ?
9.  something that shouldn’t have happened but had happened  something that should have happened but did not happen  something that had happened but did not fulfill the goals / needs WHAT IS A PROBLEM ?
10.  Unknown source  Within scope of authority  Needs to investigate  Based on Quantitative Data CONCEPT OF PROBLEM IN PDCA CYCLE DEMING CYCLE
11. CREATIVE - Generative - Nonjudgemental - Expansive When you are thinking creatively, you are generating list of new ideas CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILS CRITICAL - Analytical - Judgemental - Selective When you are thinking critically, you are making choices Creative vs Critical
12. THE IMPORTANCE OF CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING 1. Solving or reducing personal problems 2. Apply the techniques to assist friends, spouse and children to solve their problems 1. Analyze situations in a systematically way. 2. Resolve problems creatively 3. Assist Superior in solving daily operation issues & challenges. 4. Developing a pool of young talent who are problem solvers. Daily conduct Business Needs
13. SOFT SKILLS 1. English language proficiency – oral and written 2. Knowledge of other languages an added advantage 3. Communication skills 4. Thinking skills 5. Planning and administrative skills 6. ICT skills COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Able to present ideas orally and in writing 2. Able to present ideas in group discussions 3. Able to write reports, project papers, meeting minutes 4. Able to write official letter and memorandum 5. Able to provide spontaneous ideas 6. Able to negotiate 7. Able to lead and manage THINKING SKILLS 1. Analytical ability 2. Generating critical ideas 3. Generating creative ideas 4. Producing high quality work with minimal errors PLANNING & ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS 1. Able to manage time effectively 2. Able to draw effective plan of action 3. Able to decide effectively 4. Able to work in a team PERSONALITY 1. Self-confident 2. Integrity 3. Trustworthy 4. Resourceful 5. Work smart ICT SKILLS 1. Information gathering 2. Information processing 3. Communication 4. Presentation of information 5. Word processing WHAT DO EMPLOYERS LOOK FOR?
14. PERSONAL Executive Competency Model BUSINESS PEOPLE OPERATIONS THE LINK BETWEEN EXECUTIVE COMPETENCY MODEL AND CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Able to analyze situations & resolve problems creatively
15. 1. THE SIX STEPS APPROACH Step 1: Presenting Problems Step 2: Restructure the problem Step 3: Identify causes to the problem Step 4: Developing alternative solution Step 5: Assessing choice of the solution Step 6: Implementing and evaluating the solution K.A.I • Know the problem (1 & 2) • Analyze the problem (3,4 & 5) • Implement the solution (6) THE 6 CREATIVE THINKING STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING
16. CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
17. PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS Construct Overall Project Plan Define Process Define Problem List Causes Find Root Causes Actn. Res. Date ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ N Y Manpower: Machinery: Methods: Materials: Measurements: What When Where How much Brainstorm For Solutions Choose Best Solution & Justify Trial Implementation € •~~~~~~~ •~~~~~~~~ Plan Implementation Force Field Analysis Implement Monitor Present Plan Actn. Res. Date ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~
18. 7. Check & Monitor Progress  Check sheet  Pareto Diagram  Radar chart PLAN DO ACTION CHECK & MONITOR SOLUTION PROGRESS CHECK PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS 1. Project Identification (Problems) - Brainstorming - Force ranking 2. Determine causes - Brainstorming - Check sheet - Cause & effect analysis 3. Develop target & solution - Brainstorming - 5W + 1H 4. Data collection - Checklist - Stratification 5. Management presentation - Approval 6. Implement Solution - Trial 8. If no improvement - (Relook P2) 9. Slight improvement - (Relook P3 & P2) 10. Achieve target - Standardization (SOP)
19. Identify and list problems encountered at or during working ACTIVITY
20. PROBLEM DEFINITION CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
21. You may need to state the problem in broad terms since the exact problem may not be obvious. You may lack information to define it You can confuse symptoms with underlying causes Prepare a statement of the problem and find someone you trust to review it and to talk it over. If the problem is a job situation, review it with your supervisor or the appropriate committee or resource. DEFINING THE PROBLEM
22. - Clarify the Situation - Challenge assumptions about the Problem - Determine possible reasons and evidence - Explore different perspective concerning the problem - Ask more about the original question DETERMINE WHERE THE PROBLEM ORIGINATED
23. Present State - Write a statement of the situation as it curently exists Desired State - Should include concrete details, contain any information about possible causes or solutions DEFINING THE PRESENT STATE AND THE DESIRED STATE
24. Q U A L I T Y TIME Performance Gap Highest Performance A A B B A need or discrepancy between should be condition and actual situation DEFINING THE PRESENT STATE AND THE DESIRED STATE
25.  Place emphasis on different words in the statement and ask questions about each emphasis  Subtitute one word in the statement that explicitly defines the word to reframe the problem  Rephrase the statement  Indicate quantity or time  Identify and replace or eliminate any persuasive or opinionated words STATING AND RESTATING THE PROBLEM
26. 27 Utilize kipling Tools 5W 1H i.e who, what, where, when, why and How ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
27. ANALYZE SITUATIONS & RESOLVE PROBLEMS CREATIVELY CREATIVE : Having the ability to produce new ideas CRITICAL : Careful attention and judgment THINKING : A process that acts upon intelligence INNOVATION : Doing something with the ideas
28.  What are the possible sources of the problem?  What are the internal and external changes that contribute to the particular problem?  Who is most involved in this problem?  Do they have the perspective in solving this problem?  Why does this problem exist? IDENTIFY CAUSES TO THE PROBLEM ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
29. Three sub-steps: Step A : Identify Potential Causes Step B : Determine the Most Likely Causes Step C : Identify the True Root Causes IDENTIFY CAUSES TO THE PROBLEM ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
30. STEP A : Identify Potential Causes EFFECT cause cause cause cause cause cause cause cause ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM Main cause 1 Main cause 2 Main cause 3 Main cause 4 ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
31. 5 accident cases at the worksite No safety features careless No proper skills No safety procedure cause cause cause Safety not functioning ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM Machine Man Material Method STEP A : Identify Potential Causes (Example) ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
32. PARETO CHART STEP B : Determine the most likely causes ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
33. WHY-WHY DIAGRA M Effect of the Problem Why? Why? Why? LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 STEP C : Identify the true root causes ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
34. WHY-WHY DIAGRAM Careless Sleepy Sleep Late Part Time Job LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 STEP C : Identify the true root causes ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
35. To assess the most frequently-occurring defects by category To provide a structured way to collect quality-related data as a rough means for assessing a process or as an input to other analyses To break down (in successive layers of detail) root causes that potentially contribute to a particular effect TOOLS / TECHNIQUES THAT ARE COMMONLY USED TO SOLVE PROBLEMS Ishikawa Diagram / Fish-bone Chart Check Sheet Pareto
36. To compare size of quantity / big or small numbers. To show relative proportion TOOLS / TECHNIQUES THAT ARE COMMONLY USED TO SOLVE PROBLEMS To illustrate a project schedule (star and end date) Gantt Chart Pie Graph Bar Graph
37. To identify the type of relationship (if any) between two variables To roughly assess the probability distribution of a given variable by depicting the frequencies of observations occurring in certain ranges of values To determine whether a process should undergo a formal examination for quality-related problems TOOLS / TECHNIQUES THAT ARE COMMONLY USED TO SOLVE PROBLEMS Histogram Scatter Diagram Control Chart
38. OTHER POPULAR TOOLS / TECHNIQUES COMMONLY USED TO SOLVE PROBLEMS Tree Diagram Affinity Diagram To breakdown issues, statements and Ideas until actionable items Are identify. Allows large numbers of ideas stemming from brainstorming to be sorted into groups for review and analysis Relationship Diagram Used for finding solution to problems that have complex causal relationship
39. TOOLS / TECHNIQUES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS ACTIVITY TOOLS Identify problem Brainstorming, Pareto Select problem Filtering, Matrix Decision Making Define problem 5W 2H concept Analyses problem (find & verify the source) Fish bone diagram, linkage diagram, matrix verification Fix a target SMARTER concept Intervention suggestion Brainstorming, focus group
40. Identify the root causes of the problem that you had already identified. ACTIVITY
41. WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT Who - Who does the problem affect? What - What is the issue? - What is the impact of the issue? When - When does the issue occur? - When does it need to be fixed? Where - Where is the issue occurring?
42. • Company profit to increase to at least 21% by the end of December 2010 • Cases of “Staff Absent Without Leave” among technical staff to be reduced to at most 10% per month starting August 2010 • No accident cases at the construction site for the month of May 2010 onwards EXAMPLE OF DESIRED STATE WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
43. Good Problem Statement 1. Written 2. Objective 3. Simple 4. No implied causes 5. No implied solutions WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
44. • Company profit has dropped from 21% to 17% from last year • 10 % of the technical staff were absent without leave in the month of August 2010 • 5 accident cases were recorded at the plant site for the month of May 2010 EXAMPLE OF PROBLEM STATEMENT WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
45. Example 1 – Problem Statement  Poorly Written Examples  “There are too many errors in our reports”  Good Examples  “The monthly quality reports contain more than 2 errors on average, greater than the 0 errors expected”  Better Examples  “The past 2 months the quality reports contain more than 2 errors on average, greater than the 0 errors expected”  Poorly Written Examples  “Our delivery time is horrible”  Good Examples  “On-Time Delivery has averaged 92%, less than the target of 98.5%”  Better Examples  “On-Time Delivery to Customer X been only 92% for the last 4 months, less than the required 98.5%”
46. Problem Statement must be SMART! MAJOR TERM MINOR TERMS S Specific Significant, Stretching, Simple M Measurable Meaningful, Motivational, Manageable A Achievable Agreed, Attainable, Assignable, Appropriate, Actionable, Action- oriented R Relevant Realistic, Results/Results- focused/Results-oriented, Resourced, Rewarding T Time-bound Time framed, Timed, Time-based, Time-boxed, Timely, Time-bound, Time-Specific, Timetabled, Traceable E Exciting, Evaluated R Recorded, Rewarding, Reviewed WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
47. a) Develop Problem Statement b) Identify “Desired State” or Goal ACTIVITY
48. GENERATING SOLUTIONS CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
49.  Brainstorming - produce as many ideas as possible, on hold assessment, develop various solution.  Basic rules  On hold assessment  Facilitate to produce more ideas  Encourage “free wheeling” BRAINSTORMING BASICS
50. WHEN TO USE BRAINSTORMING ? 1. Identify problem in your workplace 2. Analyze a problem 3. Find the probable cause to the problem 4. Find solution to the problem
51. BRAINWRITING AND MINDMAPPING Brainwriting is similar to free-association brainstorming (conducted in silence) through the medium of graphics in particular, it is classified under the intuitive and progressive methodologies as it involves driving inspiration from other members in a cyclical way. A mind mapping is another method of generating ideas on paper, but can be conducted alone. A mind map is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank landscape page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.
52. THE SIX THINKING HATS (Edward De Bono) Facts & information Feelings & emotions Being cautious Being positive & optimistic New ideas The Big picture Blue Hat Yellow Hat Red Hat Green Hat White Hat Black Hat
53. ANALYZNG AND SELECTING SOLUTIONS CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
54. DEVELOPING CRITERIA Consider the following:  Ask question: What if…  Think about what you want the solution to do or not do.  Think about what values should be considered The criteria for an effective solution, among others  Timing – urgent ? If delay?  Trend – What direction is the problem solving  Impaact – Is the problem serious?
55. ANALYSING WANTS AND NEEDS Wants and Needs seem like a fundamental aspect of defining the problem. Needs are items the potential solution absolutely must meet. Wants are nice to have items. Provide a weight to each item to indicate its importance.
56. USING COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS Cost-Benefit Analysis is a method of assigning a monetery value to the potential benefits of a solution and weighing those against the costs of implementing that solution.
57. STEP 4 : DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION a. Generate a list of possible solutions b. Determine the best solutions
58. DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS  What are the possible methods for solving the problem?  What is the impact to every alternative?  What do you wish to achieve?  What are the obstacles that prevent us from solving the problem?  Among the obstacles, which is the biggest?
59. PROBLEM TARGET STRATEGIC SOLUTION TREE DIAGRAM IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS BRAINSTORMING & THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX Good impact desired
60. PROBLEM TARGET STRATEGIC SOLUTION EXAMPLE : TREE DIAGRAM IN SOLUTION FINDING A Restaurant Owner Finding How To Satisfy Customers Good impact desired
61. EXAMPLE : USING TREE DIAGRAM OF PROPOSED SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE FILTER FAN USAGE BY 30% IN 4Q ‘09 TO REDUCE FILTER FAN USAGE BY 30% IN 4Q ‘09 PURPOSE (WHY) METHOD MATERIAL MAN FREQUENT USAGE HIGH WEAR AND TEAR CHANGE TO THICKER AND HARDER MATERIAL STANDARD USAGE NOT ALLOWED IMPLEMENT STANDARD USAGE CHEAP QUALITY FACTORS (WHERE) CAUSES (WHAT) COUNTER MEASURES (HOW) RESP (WHO) PERIOD (WHEN) NO PERSONAL STORAGE REUSE FILTER FAN CHECK STORAGE LEVEL ROKIAH JASMINE AUG WK2 TO WK4 FRANCISCA JASMINE AUG WK2 AZLINA AUG WK3 TO WK4 FRANCISCA ROKIAH AUG WK3 AUG WK3 WK4 ROKIAH FARIDAH Bad impact
62. Time to complete Resources required Estimated cost How to implement? Expected good impact Proposed solution Impact of the causes Major Causes Example : Solution Template
63. Develop at least 3 solutions from the root causes identified ACTIVITY
64. Factors in selecting :-  Quantity and quality of information  Implementation cost (time & RM)  Easy implementation  Probability of success if proceed  Effectiveness of solution DOING A FINAL ANALYSIS
65. Three steps:-  Develop and assign weights to criteria  Apply the criteria  Choose the best solution (s) ASSESSING THE CHOICE OF THE SOLUTIONS DOING A FINAL ANALYSIS
66. Effectiveness Efficiency Cost Overall Rating Panadol Take a break Ginseng Sleep Objective: To reduce headache Scale: Very Negative 1 2 3 4 5 6 Very Positive 5 4 4 5 5 3 3 2 4 2 3 6 14 9 10 13 SELECT THE BEST SOLUTIONS MATRIX DIAGRAM
67. Is a method of prioritizing a small number of workable solutions. The first step is to list all the possible solutions. Label each solution with a letter or number. Next compare the solution in pairs. Decide only between those two which solution is preferrable. Assign a number to indicate the strength of the preferrence for each options. PAIRED COMPARISON ANALYSIS
68. Think forward to the solution implementation. Ask who, what, where, when and How in relation to implementing the solution. Brainstorm for potential problems related to the solution. ANALYZING POTENTIAL PROBLEMS
69.  Decision can be based on MUST and WANTS  MUST - criteria that have to be met without compromise (must-haves)  WANTS - criteria desirable to be achieved, would have tilt the decision (nice-to-haves) SELECT THE BEST SOLUTIONS ACTIVITY
70. PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEPS CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
71. STEPS :  What to do (the activity)?  When to do (start and finish)?  Who to do?  What are the resources required? PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
72. IDENTIFYING TASKS PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP - Brainstorm with people involved with the problem to determine the specific steps necessary to make the solution becomes reality. - Identify any task that are critical to the timing of the solution implementation. Critical tasks are items that will delay the entire implementation schedule if not completed on time. Non critical tasks are items that can be done as time and resources permit.
73. IDENTIFYING RESOURCES PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP Time to think about the resources for making the solution become reality. The resources are as below: - Time : How to schedule the project. - Personnel : Who will complete the identified task. - Equipment : Any special equipment needed? - Money : How much will the solution cost - Information : any additional information required?
74. IMPLEMENTING, EVALUATING AND ADAPTING PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP Now is the time to use the Project Management skills to keep the implementation on track. During implementation, continue to evaluate the solutions.
75. ACTIVITY PLAN SEP- 06 OCT-06 NOV-06 W1 W 2 W 3 W 4 W 1 W 2 W 3 W 4 W 1 W 2 W 3 W4 P Data grouping 1. 5S Awareness Motivation class 2. Use PA system for announcement 3. Announcement made during morning assembly Management performance unit assembly D 1. Make all members attend 5S practice motivation class GROUP A,B,C, and D C 1. Check with audit 2. Used check sheet every week A 1. Monitoring – monthly checking from project leaders 2. Understand the marking 3. Audit by the management with standard IDENTIFYING TASKS PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
76. ACTIVITY PLANNING STEP ACTIVITIES APR-06 MAY-06 JUN-06 JUL-06 AUG-056 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 Project area Theme selection Data Collection Data Analysis Solution Evaluation Implementation Monitoring result Standardization Follow-up Result Future Plan P D C A KEY : PLAN ACTUAL PROCEEDING ADALI S’MAN YATI K’RUL FIDA - INCHARGE - ASSIST SCH ZUL LAILI MGT SHAM PROBLEM RESOLUTION IMPLEMENTATION
77. IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION a. Divide solution into sequential tasks ACTION PLAN Responsible Person /Group Action Step Task/Activity Begin Date End Date Estimated Hours Cost SOLUTION A Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 SOLUTION B Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3
78. a. Divide solution into sequential tasks ACTION PLAN Responsible Person /Group Action Step Task/Activity Begin Date End Date Estimated Hours Cost SOLUTION A Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 SOLUTION B Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
79. A - Divide solution into sequential tasks To Complete the Job on Time Responsible Person /Group Action Step Task/Activity Begin Date End Date Estimated Hours Budget 1. Buy a new PC Set the specs Get the quotation Select vendor Purchase 2. Train the Staff Training Manual Organise Conduct Training Abu Abu Abu Abu 12.8.01 21.8.01 16.8.01 22.8.01 15.8.01 20.8.01 22.8.01 25.8.01 3 days 4 days 2 days 4 days RM0 RM0 RM0 RM5,000 Ahmad Ahmad 13.9.01 Ahmad 13.9.01 1.10.01 20..9.01 30.9.01 2.10.01 2 days 17 days 7 days RM100 RM2000 RM2000 IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
80. b. Develop Contigency Plans Action Step from Action Plan Sub-Step Sub-Step Sub-Step ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? What will we do? What could go wrong IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
81.  Make sure everyone participate  Build a commitment to action into decision  Create extensive involvement of those affected  Build a feedback loop into the process IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
82. EVALUATE THE SOLUTIONS Considerations:-  Has the desired state achieved?  Is the process going on smoothly to make sure no recurrence to problem?
83. Develop action plan to implement the chosen solution. Plan before implementation ACTIVITY
84. RECORDING LESSONS LEARNED CRITICAL THINKING & CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
85. PLANNING THE FOLLOW-UP MEETING  Must have clear agenda. The Purpose is to conduct a Final Evaluation of the problem, the selected solution and the implementation of the project.  Invite team members involved in the process and the solution implementation  Consider the meeting arrangements
86. CELEBRATING SUCCESS  Take the time to celebrate the things that went well during the problem solving process  Try to recognize each person for their contribution and accomplishments.  Also celebrate successes by recognizing the contributions of Team members in the follow-up meeting.
87. IDENTIFYING IMPROVEMENTS  Take the time to lessons learned and ways to make improvements so that the next problem solved will be even better.  Meeting with Team members and Stakeholders to identify improvements. It can - ensures everyone is aware of the challenges encountered and what was done to resolve - apply this lessons to future problems and be more successful
88. COMMON PITFALLS  Working on problems that are too general, too large or not well-defined  Jumping to solution before really analyse  Failing to involve critical decision makers  Tackling problems beyond control  Failing to develop good reasons of choosing  Failing to plan how to implement & evaluate