• In psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental
stress or discomfort experienced by an individual
who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas,
or values at the same time; performs an action that is
contradictory to their beliefs, ideas, or values; or is
confronted by new information that conflicts with
existing beliefs, ideas or values
– Humans are sensitive to inconsistencies
between actions and beliefs.
– Recognition of this inconsistency will cause
dissonance, and will motivate an individual to
resolve the dissonance.
– Dissonance will be resolved in one of three basic
• Change beliefs
• Change actions
• Change perception of action