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  1. 1. A level Year 1 & AS Year 12 AS Paper 1 – Introductory topics in Psychology - Social Influence - Memory - Attachment Paper 2 – Psychology in Context - Approaches in Psychology - Biopsychology - Psychopathology - Research Methods A level Paper 1 – Introductory topics in Psychology - Social Influence - Memory - Attachment - Psychopathology Paper 2 – Psychology in Context - Approaches in Psychology - Biopsychology - Research methods Year 13 A level Paper 2 – Psychology in Context - Extra Approaches in Psychology - Extra Biopsychology - Extra Research methods Paper 3 – Issues and Options in Psychology - Issues and debates in Psychology - Relationships - Schizophrenia - Forensic Psychology Helpful resources:
  2. 2. Introductory topics to Psychology Social Influence Paper 1 for both A level and AS level Notes you should have Topics Page Notes Revised Types of conformity – Internalisation, identification, compliance 16 Explanations of conformity – ISI and NSI 16 Factors affecting conformity – group size, unanimity, difficulty of task 18 Conformity to social roles – Zimbardo 20 Explanations of obedience – agentic state, legitimate authority 22 Situational factors of obedience – proximity, location, uniform 26 Dispositional factors of obedience – Authoritarian personality 28 Explanations of resistance to social influence – social support, locus of control 30 Minority influences – consistency, commitment, flexibility 32 Processes ofSocial Change 34 Key studies to know Study Brief details Asch 1951, 1955 A group of confederates used to see if they can sway the answer of a pp on a visual perception task. Zimbardo 1973 Pps are observed in a mock prison situation to see how it changes their behaviour. Milgram 1963 Pps are asked to administer electric shocks in responseto
  3. 3. incorrect answers from a “learner” to see if people will follow orders that could lead to someone else’s death. Adorno et al 1950 Pps complete a questionnaire (F-Scale) to find out how authoritative they are and how it affects their behaviour. Moscovici et al 1969 Confederates used to see if they can sway the answers of a larger group of pps on a visual perception task. Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: End of topic test Introductory topics to Psychology Memory Paper 1 for both A level and AS level Notes you should have Topics Page Notes Revised The MSM of memory – parts and features 46 – 49 Types of LTM – episodic, semantic, procedural 50 The WMM of memory – parts and features 52 Explanations of forgetting – interferences and lack of cues 54-57 EWT 58 EWT – the impact of misleading information (questions and post-event discussion) 58 EWT – the impact of anxiety 60 Improving EWT through the Cognitive Interview 62
  4. 4. Key studies to know Study Brief details Baddeley 1966a, 1966b Pps are asked to learn different lists of words so that their errors in recall can be used to demonstrate encoding. Jacob 1887 Pps are asked to learn lists of digits to see how many they can hold in STM at one time. Peterson 1959 Pps are asked to complete memory tasks with different length distraction tasks to see how long they can hold the information. Bahrick et al 1975 Using year books, pps are tested on their recall of on school acquaintances. Clive Wearing A case study of an individual who experienced problems with his memory after brain damage. Baddeley et al 1975 Pps are asked to complete two tasks at once to see how it impacts on their performance of each task Goddenand Baddeley 1975 Pps learn and recall information in different contexts to see how it impacts on their accuracy. Loftus and Palmer 1974 Pps watch and video of a film crash and are then asked questions to see how those question impact on their later accuracy when recalling the event Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: End of topic test Introductory topics to Psychology Attachment Paper 1 for both A level and AS level Notes you should have
  5. 5. Topics Page Notes Revised Definition and stages of attachment 74-77 Multiple attachments – role of the father 74 Animal studies of attachment – Lorenz, Harlow 78 The Learning Theory of attachment 80 The Evolutionary Theory of attachment - Bowlby 82 The Strange Situation – Types of attachment 84 Cultural variations in attachment 86 Maternal deprivation – the impact of institutionalisation 88-91 The influence of early attachment on adulthood 92 Key studies to know Study Brief details Schaffer and Emerson 1964 Families are observed to see who the baby has formed an attachment to. Lorenz 1952 Lorenz hand rears geese to see if they will respond to him in the way they would their biological mother. Harlow 1958 Rhesus monkeys are reared by wire and cloth mothers to see which they form the stronger attachment to. Ainsworth 1969 Babies are observed in a controlled observation to see how they react to different stages of the procedure. van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg 1988 A meta-analysis of multiple Strange Situations carried out in different countries to look for similarities and differences in attachment. Bowlby 1944 Criminal teenagers interviewed to look for signs of maternal deprivation. Rutter et al 2011 Pps who spent time in a Romanian orphanage are observed and interviewed to see how their experiences have affected their lives. Hazan and Shaver 1987 A questionnaire is out into a newspaper asking people to respond to questions about their childhood relationships and adult romantic relationships. Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti
  6. 6. Essay: End of topic test Introductory topics/Psychology in Context Psychopathology Paper 1 for AS level and Paper 2 for A level Notes you should have Topics Page Notes Revised Definitions of abnormality – DSN, FFA, SI, DIMH 134 Phobias – behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics 138 Depression – behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics 140 OCD – behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics 142 Behavioural approach – explaining phobias 144 Behavioural approach – treating phobias 146 Cognitive approach– explaining depression 148 Cognitive approach– treating depression 150 Biological approach – explaining OCD 152 Biological approach – treating OCD 154 Key studies to know Study Brief details Watson and Rayner 1920 A case study of a 9-month-old child is taught to be scared of many different white objects through the process ofClassical Conditioning Key assessments
  7. 7. Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: End of topic test Psychology in Context Approaches in Psychology Paper 2 for both A level and AS level Notes you should have Topics Page Notes Revised The origins of psychology 104 The Learning Approach – Classical and Operant conditioning 106 The Learning Approach – Social Learning Theory 108 The Cognitive Approach 110 The Biological Approach 112 A level only Topics The Psychodynamic Approach 118
  8. 8. The Humanistic Approach 120 Comparison of the Approaches 122 Key studies to know Study Brief details Pavlov 1902 Dogs are taught to respond to a neutral stimulus to demonstrate the process oflearning by Classical conditioning Skinner 1953 Rats are taught to either press or not press a lever in a “Skinner Box” to demonstrate the process oflearning by Operant conditioning Bandura 1963 Children are observed playing in a room full of toys after watching a video of an adults being aggressive towards one of the toys. Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: End of topic test Psychology in Context Biopsychology Paper 2 for both A level and AS level Notes you should have
  9. 9. Topics Page Notes Revised Divisions of the nervous system – Central and Peripheral 114 Neurons – structure and function 116 Neurons – synaptic transmission 117 The endocrine system – glands and hormones 115 The fight or flight response 115 A level only Topics Localisation of brain functions Ways of studying the brain – fMRIs, EEGs, ERPs, post-mortem Biological rhythms – circadian, infradian, ultradian Processes ofSocial Change Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: End of topic test
  10. 10. Psychology in Context Research Methods Paper 2 for both A level and AS level Notes you should have Research Methods Page Notes Revised Types of experiments – Lab, Field, Natural, Quasi 172 Observations – natural, controlled, covert, overt, participant, non-participant 180-3 Self-report – Questionnaires and interviews 184-7 Correlations 188 A level only Topics Content analysis Case studies Scientific Processes Page Notes Revised Aims and hypotheses 166 Sampling – random, systematic, stratified, opportunity, volunteer 174 Pilot studies 178 Experimental design – repeated measure, independent groups, matched pairs 170 Variables – IV, DV, EV, CV, operationalisation 167-8 Control – random allocation, counterbalancing, randomisation 168 Demand characteristics 168
  11. 11. Ethics 176 Peer review 200 Implications on the economy 201 A level only Topics Reliability – test-retest, inter-observer, assessment, improvement Validity – face, concurrent, ecological, temporal, assessment, improvement Features of science – objectivity, replicability, falsifiability Reporting psychological investigations Data Handling and Analysis Page Notes Revised Qualitative vs quantitative data 190 Primary vs secondarydata 190 Measures of central tendency – mean, median, mode 192 Measures of dispersion – range, standard deviation 193 Displays of quantitative data – graphs, tables, scattergrams, bar charts 194 Distributions – normal and skewed 195 The sign test 199 A level only Topics Content analysis Levels of measurement – nominal, ordinal, interval Probability and significance 198 Type I and type II errors Choosing a statistical test Statistical tests – Spearman’s rho, Pearson’s r, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, related t-test, unrelated t-test, chi-squared assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Assessment:
  12. 12. Assessment: Assessment: Assessment: Assessment: Issues and Options in Psychology Issues and Debates Paper 3 for A level Notes you should have
  13. 13. Topics Page Notes Revised Gender bias – androcentrism, alpha, beta Cultural bias – ethnocentrism, cultural relativism Free will VS Determinism – biological, environemtal, psychic, causal explanations Nature VS Nurture – heredticy, environment, interactionist Holism VS Reductionism – biological, environmental Idiographic and nomothetic Ethical implications Key studies to know Study Brief details Pavlov 1902 Dogs are taught to respond to a neutral stimulus to demonstrate the process oflearning by Classical conditioning Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: End of topic test
  14. 14. Issues and Options in Psychology Relationships Paper 3 for A level Notes you should have Topics Page Notes Revised Evolutionary theory – mate selection and reproductive behaviour Factors affecting attraction Formation theories – social exchange Maintenance theories – equity, investment model of commitment Breakdown theories – Duck’s breakdown model Virtual relationships in social media Parasocial relationships Key studies to know Study Brief details Pavlov 1902 Dogs are taught to respond to a neutral stimulus to demonstrate the process oflearning by Classical conditioning Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: Essay: End of topic test
  15. 15. Issues and Options in Psychology Schizophrenia Paper 3 for A level Notes you should have Topics Page Notes Revised Classification of Sz – positive and negative symptoms Issues with reliability and validity of diagnosis Biological explanations of Sz – genes, dopamine, neural correlates Psychological explanations of Sz – family dysfunction, cognitive Drug therapy – typical and atypical Psychological therapies – CBT, family therapy, token economies The interactionist approach – diathesis-stress model Key studies to know Study Brief details
  16. 16. Pavlov 1902 Dogs are taught to respond to a neutral stimulus to demonstrate the process oflearning by Classical conditioning Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: Essay: End of topic test Issues and Options in Psychology Forensic Psychology Paper 3 for A level Notes you should have Topics Page Notes Revised Defining crime – measurements, statistics, surveys Offender profiling – top-down, bottom-up
  17. 17. Biological explanations of offender behaviour – historical, genetic, neural Psychological explanations of offender behaviour – Eysenck, cognitive, psychodynamic Dealing with offenders – sentencing, recidivism, behaviour modification, restorative justice Key studies to know Study Brief details Pavlov 1902 Dogs are taught to respond to a neutral stimulus to demonstrate the process oflearning by Classical conditioning Key assessments Assessment title Grade www hti Essay: Essay: End of topic test

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