Psychology &Psychology &
SportSport
AggressionAggression
AimAim
• To explore the concept of aggression
and its application to sport
Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives
• By the end of the lesson you
will be able to
– Define aggression
– Identify diffe...
Aggression is………Aggression is………
• Write down your own definition of
aggression
• Is it an attitude?
• A behaviour?
Aggression is…………Aggression is…………
• a sequence of behaviours in which
the goal is to injure another person
(Dollard)
• so...
Aggression has a number ofAggression has a number of
features (Gill)features (Gill)
• Is a behaviour – wanting to hit some...
What were the threeWhat were the three
features?features?
• Behaviour
• Harm
• Intent
Two Types of AggressionTwo Types of Aggression
• Hostile aggression
the purpose of this
behaviour is solely to
harm someon...
• Bredemeier and Shields (86) to
describe the temporary suspension
of everyday morality in sports
setting.
• Behaviours th...
AssertivenessAssertiveness is playing with energyis playing with energy
and emotion and within the rules ofand emotion and...
Measuring AggressionMeasuring Aggression
• Write down as many ways as you
can think of to measure aggression
• Operational...
Measures of AggressionMeasures of Aggression
• Behavioural Measures
• Questionnaires
• Projective Techniques
Behavioural MeasuresBehavioural Measures
Behavioural measures may be used in an
experiment or in observational studies and...
QuestionnairesQuestionnaires
• Questions are devised to find out the level of
aggression of the respondent, a method widel...
Projective TechniquesProjective Techniques
• These do not ask the participant directly about
aggression, but try to discov...
Evaluation StopEvaluation Stop
• Briefly note down some evaluation
points regarding the three methods
we have just looked ...
Theories of AggressionTheories of Aggression
• There are a number of explanations
put forward to explain aggressive
behavi...
Theories to ExamineTheories to Examine
• Psychoanalytic Approach
• The Frustration-Aggression (F-A)
Hypothesis
• Berkowitz...
Case StudyCase Study
David Beckham had a good record
behaviour until 1998 when he was
sent off in the World Cup match
agai...
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  1. 1. Psychology &Psychology & SportSport AggressionAggression
  2. 2. AimAim • To explore the concept of aggression and its application to sport
  3. 3. Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives • By the end of the lesson you will be able to – Define aggression – Identify different ways to measure aggression – Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the measures
  4. 4. Aggression is………Aggression is……… • Write down your own definition of aggression • Is it an attitude? • A behaviour?
  5. 5. Aggression is…………Aggression is………… • a sequence of behaviours in which the goal is to injure another person (Dollard) • some kind of behaviour, that is carried out with the intention of harming someone (Berkowitz)
  6. 6. Aggression has a number ofAggression has a number of features (Gill)features (Gill) • Is a behaviour – wanting to hit someone is not aggression, but hitting them is, just as telling them you want to hit them is also aggressive. • Involves harm or injury to another living organism –this can either be physical harm (a cracked shin) or psychological harm (creating fear). • Involves intent – harm which is done accidentally is not aggression. If a hockey player comes from behind to tackle an opponent on her stick side and catches the stick of his shin, this is an accident.
  7. 7. What were the threeWhat were the three features?features? • Behaviour • Harm • Intent
  8. 8. Two Types of AggressionTwo Types of Aggression • Hostile aggression the purpose of this behaviour is solely to harm someone, so head butting an opponent would fall into this category. This is also called reactive aggression and is accompanied by anger. • Instrumental aggression here aggression is a means of achieving something, for example, tackling hard in order to gain possession of the ball. This is also called channelled aggression and is not accompanied by anger.
  9. 9. • Bredemeier and Shields (86) to describe the temporary suspension of everyday morality in sports setting. • Behaviours that may only be acceptable in a sports setting have been called assertive behaviours by Silva (80).
  10. 10. AssertivenessAssertiveness is playing with energyis playing with energy and emotion and within the rules ofand emotion and within the rules of the game.the game. • is goal directed to achieve a major purpose • is not intended to harm or injure • used only legitimate force (even though this amount of force could be called aggression in a non-game setting) • does not break the rules agreed of sport.
  11. 11. Measuring AggressionMeasuring Aggression • Write down as many ways as you can think of to measure aggression • Operationalise it as much as you can • Now evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of your measure(s)
  12. 12. Measures of AggressionMeasures of Aggression • Behavioural Measures • Questionnaires • Projective Techniques
  13. 13. Behavioural MeasuresBehavioural Measures Behavioural measures may be used in an experiment or in observational studies and can include: – acts of physical aggression towards other people (pushing someone) or towards objects (smashing a tennis racket) – verbal aggression, such as derogatory remarks or shouting – punishing another person, either indirectly, such as by the severity of a sentence for someone on trial, or directly, by delivering a harsh noise or even administering electric shocks to another person.
  14. 14. QuestionnairesQuestionnaires • Questions are devised to find out the level of aggression of the respondent, a method widely used to assess aggression as a personality trait. • An example is the Bredemeier Athletic Inventory (Bredemeier, 78). • Questions may also be put to those who know the participant, as a way of assessing their perception of that person’s behaviour in their home, social or sports setting.
  15. 15. Projective TechniquesProjective Techniques • These do not ask the participant directly about aggression, but try to discover what their unconscious feelings are. • These are linked to the psychoanalytic approach. An example of this was (as discussed in personality) Thematic Apperception Test, in which participants are asked to say what they think is happening in the ambiguous picture. • Their answers are analysed to determine their levels of aggression which is revealed by interpretation.
  16. 16. Evaluation StopEvaluation Stop • Briefly note down some evaluation points regarding the three methods we have just looked at
  17. 17. Theories of AggressionTheories of Aggression • There are a number of explanations put forward to explain aggressive behaviour. • Most reflect the psychological perspective that they come from
  18. 18. Theories to ExamineTheories to Examine • Psychoanalytic Approach • The Frustration-Aggression (F-A) Hypothesis • Berkowitz’s Cue-Arousal (or Aggressive Cue) Theory • Social Learning Theory
  19. 19. Case StudyCase Study David Beckham had a good record behaviour until 1998 when he was sent off in the World Cup match against Argentina for a kick on Diego Simeone. Using your allocated perspective present a sports bulletin on why he committed this act. In the second part of the bulletin, the explanation needs to be criticised by other presenters

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