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  1. 1. Personality Lesson 3Personality Lesson 3
  2. 2. Recap Last Lesson • What is the meaning of Personality? • What is the meaning of Temperament? • What two studies have we looked at so far? • What did they find? • What did you evaluate about them?
  3. 3. Recap • Personality is the thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make an individual unique. • Temperament is the genetic component of personality. It refers to our inborn personality traits
  4. 4. Kagan and Snidman (1991) Aim To investigate whether temperament is due to biological differences. Method They studied the reactions of 500, four-month-old babies to new situations. For the first minute the baby was placed in a seat with the caregiver sitting nearby. For the next three minutes the caregiver moved out of the baby’s view while the baby was shown different toys by the researcher. Results Twenty per cent of the babies showed distress by crying, vigorous movements of the arms and legs and arching of the back. They were classed as high reactive. Forty per cent of the babies showed little movement or emotion. They were classed as low reactive. The remaining infants fell somewhere between the two. Conclusion Kagan and Snidman concluded that these two temperaments are due to inherited differences in the way the brain responds.
  5. 5. Images • Draw an image of the baby and caregiver sitting nearby. • Then the image of the caregiver out of view and the baby with the researcher. • Then draw an image of the high and low reactive babies.
  6. 6. Evaluate Kagan and Snidman’s Study • Kagan and Snidman studied 500 babies. What is the advantage of having a large sample? • The study was carried out in an experimental setting. Outline one advantage and one disadvantage of carrying out research in an experimental setting. • The reactions of the babies were observed and recoded. What is the disadvantage of observing behaviour.
  7. 7. Evaluate Kagan and Snidman’s Study • Kagan and Snidman used a large sample, which means it is easier to generalise their results to the whole population.
  8. 8. Evaluate Kagan and Snidman’s Study • The research took place in an experimental setting. This is a controlled environment. Consequently it would not have been familiar to the children taking part. Therefore they may have behaved differently from usual because they were in a strange place.
  9. 9. Evaluate Kagan and Snidman’s Study • Behaviour was observed and recorded. The researchers may have missed some important behaviours or recorded them inaccurately. This would affect the results.
  10. 10. Check your understanding. 1. Define what is meant by personality 2. Define what is meant by temperament 3. Describe one study of temperament. In your answer include the reason the study was carried out, the method used, the results obtained and conclusions drawn. 4. Evaluate the study you have described in Q3
  11. 11. Key Terms Type theory – personality types are thoughts to be inherited. They can described using related traits.
  12. 12. Eysenck • Extroversion – a personality type that describes people who look to the outside world for excitement. • Introversion – a personality type that describe people who are content with their own company.
  13. 13. Eysenck • Neuroticism – a personality type that describes people who are highly emotional and show a quick, intense reaction to fear.