Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.

Resourcd File

  • Inicia sesión para ver los comentarios

  • Sé el primero en recomendar esto

Resourcd File

  1. 1. What point is being made? Why is this of concern to sociologists?
  2. 2. Lesson 3: Introduction to theories of media ownership Key objectives: • Outline and explain the main theoretical approaches to media ownership: – Manipulative or instrumentalist approach. (Marxist) – Dominant ideology or hegemonic approach. (Neo-Marxist) – Pluralist approach. • Apply relevant theorist, concepts and evidence to these approaches. • Analyse and evaluate the usefulness of the different approaches to media ownership. 25 May 2017
  3. 3. Doyle 2002 • Societies need diverse and pluralistic media so that different points of view can be heard. • Concentration of ownership can lead to abuse of power and influence. • Democracy and justice suffer.
  4. 4. Who are the people identified in this clip and what theoretical perspectives do they identify for ownership and control? Summarise the two key perspectives on media ownership and control according to these individuals:
  5. 5. Theoretical perspective Marxist Neo-Marxist Pluralists Role of owners Role of editors and journalists View of the audience Message and content of the media Key concepts Key theorists Criticisms
  6. 6. Marxist view of media ownership (manipulative or instrumentalist approach) The traditional Marxist approach argues the concentration of ownership of the mass media in the hands of a few corporations enables owners to control media output and send out ideas/ideologies which benefit ruling-class interests. This approach sees the media as an instrument of the ruling-class. Marxists identify several key features to their approach: • owners have direct control of media content • owners can and do interfere with media content • owners use the media to spread ideas (dominant ideology) which justify the position and power of the ruling-class • media managers have to follow the wishes of their owners • journalists depend on owners for their jobs so are unlikely to run stories which challenge the status and authority of the ruling-classhypodermic syringe model • audience is assumed to be passive who consume media messages without thought – hypodermic syringe model best explains audience behaviour Weaknesses • pluralists argue there’s a wide range of media with differing views • state regulates media ownership so companies don’t dominate • audiences aren’t passive and actively challenge what they’re informed about – eg Twitter
  7. 7. Marxist view of media ownership (manipulative or instrumentalist approach) Key concepts • Ideology • Preferred (or dominant) reading • Dominant ideology • Ideological state apparatus • False class consciousness • Bread and circuses • Hypodermic syringe model Key theorists • Miliband (1973) • Castles and Kosack (1973) • Althusser • Marcuse - Frankfurt school • Tunstall and Palmer (1991) • Curran (2003) • Curran and Seaton (2010)
  8. 8. Neo-Marxist view of media ownership (Dominant ideology or hegemonic approach) Neo-Marxists’ develop the traditional Marxist view of media ownership by arguing media owners don’t have direct but indirect control of influence on media content. This indirect influence is more subtle as any ruling-class ideology is shared by the journalists and media managers. By already sharing ruling-class ideological values, neo-Marxists argue the media is able to establish a dominant ideology (hegemony) over issues. Neo-Marxists identify several key features: • owners don’t get actively involved in controlling content on a day-to-day basis. Instead control and content is left in the hands of journalists and managers • as managers and journalists want to protect their jobs they seek to attract advertisers and audiences by publishing suitable content. Sometimes audiences are attracted by media criticism of ruling-class, but such criticism is never threatening or damaging • journalists and managers don’t tend to criticise dominant ideology because of their background. Journalists tend to be white, well-educated, middle-class and male therefore they’ve already been socialised to accept and value the ruling-class ideology, thus their media messages tend to support the established social consensus • this common-sense consensus is promoted within the range of view and opinions transmitted in media products • the cultural effects model best explains this effect on audiences
  9. 9. Neo-Marxist view of media ownership (Dominant ideology or hegemonic approach) Key concepts • Hegemony • Dominant ideology • Cultural hegemony • News values • Agenda setting • Gatekeeping • Circuit of communication • Cultural effects Key theorists • GUMG • Greg Philo • Sutton Trust • Jones (2015)
  10. 10. Pluralist view of media ownership Unlike Marxists and neo-Marxists pluralists suggest there is no dominant ruling-class but numerous competing groups with different interests. The owners do not directly control the content of the media, but rather what appears in the media is driven by the wishes of consumers. Audiences watch what they want to and do not watch what doesn’t reflect their interests. Pluralists identify the following points: • owners do not have direct control over media content • there’s no dominant class but competing social groups • media content isn’t ideological neither does it reflect the interests of owners • media content is driven by media managers who give journalists the freedom to seek out any type of newsworthy story • media content is their to meet the needs of its audience as the audience choose the content they wish to read or watch • any bias is merely reflects audience interests as the audience ultimately has the final say it what he or she wishes to view.
  11. 11. Pluralist view of media ownership Key concepts • Pluralism • Economics of media ownership • Democratic mirror • Public service broadcasting • State controls • Ofcom • Citizen journalism Key theorists • Blondel (1969) • Whale (1977)
  12. 12. Challenge yourself! Could you research another perspective on ownership and control?
  13. 13. Neo-Marxist Marxist Pluralist
  14. 14. Controlled by Journalists Journalists have independence & are not manipulated by the owners Journalist are socialised in the dominant ideology so therefore will reflect the values of the ruling class Owners want profit –need an audience – so provide what the audience wants Consumer choice will dictate content of media – all tastes catered for. Owned by different organisations, regulated by government & content controlled by consumer choice The diversity of the mass media products, the different platforms for broadcasting & the range of pressures that influence the production of the media serve to ensure that ideological domination cannot take place The Media Reinforces the dominant position of the ruling class in a capitalist society & affirms the patterns of power that exist. This creates an ‘ideological smokescreen’ that persuades the working class to accept their position Media emphasises the power of hegemony – This ideology is spread because they accept it & believe it to be reasonable to do so. Do not see ownership and control as necessary or connected It is physically impossible for owners to have direct hands on control of the day to day running of organisations Ownership of media has become increasingly concentrated Journalist will go along with owners views as they depend on them for their jobs Owned & Controlled by the ruling class Those who own the media will directly influence the content to reflect their interest.
  15. 15. Neo-Marxist Media emphasises the power of hegemony – This ideology is spread because they accept it & believe it to be reasonable to do so. Controlled by Journalists Owners want profit –need an audience – so provide what the audience wants Journalist will go along with owners views as they depend on them for their jobs Marxist Pluralist The diversity of the mass media products, the different platforms for broadcasting & the range of pressures that influence the production of the media serve to ensure that ideological domination cannot take place The Media Reinforces the dominant position of the ruling class in a capitalist society & affirms the patterns of power that exist. This creates an ‘ideological smokescreen’ that persuades the working class to accept their position

×