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• Islamic architecture can be define as a building traditions of Muslim populations
of the Middle East and any countries where Islam has been dominant from the
7th century onwards.
• Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles
from the foundation of Islam to the present day.
• The principal Islamic architectural types are:
the Palace and
DATE FOUNDED : A.D. 622
PLACE FOUNDED :MECCA, SAUDI ARABIA
FOUNDER :MOHAMMED(BORN C.570), A TRADE MERCHANT FROM ARABIA
ADHERENTS :1.3 BILLION
SIZE RANK :SECOND LARGEST IN THE WORLD
MAIN LOCATION :MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA
SACRED TEXT :QUR’AN(KORAN)
SPREAD OF ISLAM
• IN MECCA
• IN 632 A.D.
• TO PALESTINE,
• SUNNIS AND SHI’S
DIED AND ISLAM
SPREADED • TO NORTH AND
• TO CORODOBA AND
GRANADA IN SPAIN
AND ALSO TO
ISLAM EXPANDED TO
AFRICA AND EUROPE
Islamic architecture may be identified with the following design elements, which were
inherited from the first mosque built byr hall (originally a feature of the Masjid al-
• Minarets or towers
• A four-iwan plan
• Prayer area hall
• Domes and cupolas
• Central fountains used
for ablutions (once used as
a wudu area for Muslims).
• The use of Islamic geometric
patterns and foliage
• The use of decorative Islamic
of pictures which
were haram (forbidden) in
mosque architecture. Note
that in secular architecture,
human and animal
representation was indeed
• Minarets or towers these were originally used as torch-lit watchtowers, as seen in
the Great Mosque of Damascus; hence the derivation of the word from the Arabic nur,
• Different types of minarets are as follows:
Four Iwan Plan
• The 11th century shows the
emergence of new form: the
• An iwan is a vaulted space that
opens on one side to a
• The iwan developed in pre-
Islamic Iran where it was used
in monumental and imperial
• Strongly associated with
Persian architecture, the iwan
continued to be used in
monumental architecture in
the Islamic era.
Mihrab or prayer niche on an
inside wall indicating the
direction to Mecca.
The drawings alongside gives us
an idea about the plan, elevation
and sections of a typical Mihrab
in Islamic Architecture.
• Arches are the structure
that spans a space while
• The most important form
of opening was the pointed
arch which were principally
two and four centered. Diagram showing an example of
a two-centred arch.
Diagram showing a four-centred
• Is a fundamental feature
and can be seen as different
• According to their function
the courtyards were
cloistered and arcaded and
the sides were punctuated
with gateways, prayer
chambers or arched
Prayer area halls
Prayer area hall: main area to
perform congregational pray
• The countries into which Islam first expanded were already rich in building
tradition and the important techniques of exploitation of natural resources for
building works and trade in building materials had long been established.
• Brick making and walling was almost universal in the alluvial plains; MARBLE
was generically available as an article of trade.
• Building to the stone occur in variety.
• There was a long tradition of CERAMIC production, use of GYPSUM PLASTER,
GLASS manufacture and the various forms of METALWORKS for building.
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN SAUDI ARABIA
Islamic tradition attributes the beginning
of Mecca to Ishmael's descendants.
• The great mosque of
• It is rebuilt in stone with a
colonnade on the kiblawall.
• It consists of prophet’s
• Built in 16th century, it
consists of an arcade
slightly oblong in plan.
Technical drawing of Kaaba, Mecca
Materials Used For Construction
• bricked structure with granite cladding,
• white marble base,
• meteorite black stone
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE, EGYPT
AND PERSIA (IRAN)
• Palestine was conquered by
the Islamic Empire,
beginning in 634 CE.
• The Dome of the Rock,
completed in 691, was the
world's first great work of
Cross section through dome of the
Umayyad palaces represent early Islamic
architecture. They are spread throughout the
greater Levantine countryside in what today
extends into Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and
Palestine. They were primarily rural
settlements that often incorporated a
bathhouse, residential areas, a mosque, an
irrigation system that could sustain
agricultural activities and sometimes other
facilities such as a khan. It is speculated that
they were not used as permanent shelters,
perhaps functioning as stations on a caravan
route, or as administrative outposts.
Hisham’s palace (e.g. of Umayyad palace) plan
The fatimid conquerors from
tunisia laid this city described
as the “gate of islam”.
Cairo is also known as the city
of thousand minarets.
The mosque of al-azhar is the
first marvelous building of the
fatimid dynasty of egypt. An
exquisite madrasa is attached
to it, which is one of the
world’s oldest universities.
Plan of al-azhar mosque.
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN PERSIA
Mosque at kufa
• Masjid-al-Azam located in Kūfa, Iraq,
is one of the earliest mosques in the
world. The mosque, built in the 7th
century, contains the remains of Muslim
ibn ‘Aqīl - first cousin ofHusayn ibn ‘Alī,
his companion Hānī ibn ‘Urwa, and the
revolutionary Mukhtār al-Thaqafī.
• The mosque contains nine sanctuaries
and four traditional locations. It has four
minarets and is served by five gates.
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN SPAIN
Cordoba: the great
mosque at Cordoba
• In planning the mosque, the
architects incorporated a
number of Roman columns with
• Some of the columns were
already in the Gothic structure;
others were sent from various
regions of Iberia as presents
from the governors of provinces.
Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold,
silver, copper, and brass were
used in the decorations.
Marvelous mosaics and azulejos
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN TURKEY
Mosque of Rustem
The Rüstem Pasha Mosque was
designed by Ottoman imperial
architect Mimar Sinan for the grand
vizier Rüstem Pasha.
Rüstem Pasha died in July 1561 and the
mosque was built after his death from
around 1561 until 1563. The mosque
complex hosts now a religious school.
Grand Mosque, Bursa
Ordered by Sultan Bayezid I,
the mosque was designed and built by
architect Ali Neccar in 1396–1399. It is
a large rectangular building, with
twenty domes arranged in four rows of
five that are supported by twelve
The mosque has two minarets.
• The Great Ages Of World Architecture By G.K. Hiraskar