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30 October 2014 SIPAD Workshop
Preservation of
Audiovisual Content
on Shelves
Richard Wright
SIPAD14, Mexico City, October...
2
The need for digitisation
Preservation planning
mapping your collections;
setting priorities;
making a collection strate...
Terminology

Preservation – “Everything needed to ensure
permanent access” = maintenance

Conservation: keeping what you...
Conservation

packaging, handling and shelving

environmental conditions: temperature and
humidity; protection from poll...
5
The need for digitisation
Only three ways to preserve:
1.Keep what you have
2.Copy using same technology
3.Copy using ne...
6
What about vinyl?

Gramophone
records: lacquer,
shellac and vinyl

Lacquer = a master
recording (acetate,
instantaneou...
7
More on gramophone records

Shellac was used for 78
rpm commercial
recordings

Also fragile – the main
risk is handlin...
8
But, what about vinyl?

Used for 45 and 33 1/3 rpm recordings

They are fragile (though less fragile than
shellac)

W...
Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 9
Gramophone
damage

Dropping a
needle onto a
vinyl disc

Oil coming to
the surface
on ...
10
Where was I?
Only three ways to preserve:
Keep what you have: only works for film
•
Audio, Video: analogue technology o...
11
Preservation of Film

Many excellent example of conservation

Film technology still exists (but in decline)

BUT – t...
12
The end of film projection?
“ We're About to Lose 1,000 Small
Theaters That Can't Convert to Digital.
Does It Matter?”
...
13
Digitisation of Film

Now: needed for access

Internet

Digital cinema

Soon: needed for preservation

When manufa...
14
PRESTO Digitisation
“Better Faster Cheaper” Daniel Teruggi, Institut
National de l'Audiovisuel (INA), Paris
Basic conce...
15
Digitisation Planning

All the Presto information on a wiki:
www.preservationguide.co.uk/RDWiki/pmwiki.php

StrategyS...
16
Collection Strategy

Long-term purpose of the digitisation

Preserving the collection

Maintaining services (old bus...
17
Access Outcomes

Collection access from computer stations

Mediatheque approach

Collection access via the Internet
...
18
Restrictions on Access

Attitudes: we don't do that

Fear: somebody might complain

Rights: we don't hold the rights...
19
Access:
Technical Requirements

A usable catalogue

Online support services: questions, linking to
online sales, deal...
20
Digital Archive: workflow

Everything changes when shelves disappear:

Acquisition: digital ingest

Cataloguing: com...
21
Getting Started

Map – The collection needs to be divided by
format, condition, purpose ...

Priorities – arrange the...
22
BBC film examples from wiki
Map:
http://www.preservationguide.co.uk/RDWiki/pmwiki.php
?n=Main.GettingStarted
Strategy:
...
Collection Strategy & Plan
• PDFs of wiki ‘chapters’
– Collection Strategy
– Preservation Strategy
– Preservation Plan and...
24
The Factory Approach
The division of labour
in pin manufacturing:
(and the great increase
in the quantity of work
that ...

The division of labour in pin manufacturing:
(and the great increase in the quantity of work
that results)

Approach: N...
26
A BBC Preservation Factory
27
The Factory Approach

“Division of labour” requires having specialists,
which means having a team

Which means having...
BBC Preservation:
£5M per year (for 20 years)
Audio: 7000 hours per year of ¼ inch tape
Also digitised 63 000 “sepmag” e...
29

News film: 43 000 items in 3 years

Ektachrome; digitised to SD video (Digibeta)

10% of total cost is cataloguing
...
30
Discussion

Digitisation projects of delegates

Audio, video, film

Which physical formats (eg ¼-inch audio tape,
1-...
31
Time for a break
After the break – a choice !
1)Low-level: standards and best practice for
audio, video and film
2)High...
30 October 2014 SIPAD Workshop
Digitisation Issues:
• Audio and Video: no problems at all with the
digitisation technology – the problems are with:
– Pla...
Audio holdings (TAPE data)
Carrier %
wax cylinders 0.03
coarse groove replicated disks
(‘78s’,‘shellacs’)
1.9
instantaneou...
Audio: major problems
• Wax cylinders: condition, equipment
• Lacquer discs: condition
• Sticky shed on 6mm tape playback
...
How to digitise audio
• IASA TC-04
• 48 kHz, “24 bit”
– 96 kHz recommended
• Save as a wav file
• Broadcast Wave Format re...
Film: major problems
• No problem with playback equipment !
• Some film can last centuries
• Some film already destroyed
v...
Datacine for film digitisation
• Batch process
• HD or better for 16mm
• Many archives doing 2K scanning
• No grading shot...
How to Digitise Film
B&G document on PrestoCentre
http://www.prestocentre.eu/sites/dev.prestocentre.
antenna.nl/files/film...
Sound on Film
• Successful digital processing of optical sound
tracks now very well established by Chase
Audio, Hollywood
...
Video: major problems
• As for audio: equipment, operators, fragile and
decaying media; sticky-shed
• Plus: time base corr...
Video digitisation issues
• What codec, what file format?
– Uncompressed, lossless, lossy
– Lossless: JPEG2000, FFV1 (many...
How to digitise video
1. Save the original
2. Digitise @ SDI = 4:2:2 = 200 megabits/sec
3. Save exactly as digitised = unc...
Common issue: quality control
• Computer processing exists
– in professional audio equipment: Quadrega, NOA …
• ‘fault det...
How to Digitise Film
• B&G document on PrestoCentre
• http://www.prestocentre.eu/sites/dev.prestocentr
e.antenna.nl/files/...
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Preservation of audiovisual content on shelves

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Digitisation -- but particularly planning for and managing a digitisation project

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Preservation of audiovisual content on shelves

  1. 1. 30 October 2014 SIPAD Workshop Preservation of Audiovisual Content on Shelves Richard Wright SIPAD14, Mexico City, October 2014
  2. 2. 2 The need for digitisation Preservation planning mapping your collections; setting priorities; making a collection strategy, a preservation strategy and a preservation plan The Preservation Factory approach Conservation, Digitisation and Preservation
  3. 3. Terminology  Preservation – “Everything needed to ensure permanent access” = maintenance  Conservation: keeping what you have (for as long as you can) = safe storage and handling  Preservation actions: interventions. Changing what you have = repair and replace − Making a new negative or interneg − Copying from an old carrier to a new carrier − Digitising  Which separates content from carrier = liberation 3
  4. 4. Conservation  packaging, handling and shelving  environmental conditions: temperature and humidity; protection from pollution, dirt etc  protecting the masters; and  condition monitoring = checking the stock Full description on Preservation Guide wiki: http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.PreservationStrategy#Conservation 4
  5. 5. 5 The need for digitisation Only three ways to preserve: 1.Keep what you have 2.Copy using same technology 3.Copy using new technology Keep what you have: only works for film • Audio, Video: analogue technology obsolete Copy on same technology: only works for film • Audio, Video: analogue technology obsolete
  6. 6. 6 What about vinyl?  Gramophone records: lacquer, shellac and vinyl  Lacquer = a master recording (acetate, instantaneous disc); very fragile !
  7. 7. 7 More on gramophone records  Shellac was used for 78 rpm commercial recordings  Also fragile – the main risk is handling; the shellac itself is stable (compared to laquer)
  8. 8. 8 But, what about vinyl?  Used for 45 and 33 1/3 rpm recordings  They are fragile (though less fragile than shellac)  Warp from heat (can be fixed with care)  Easily scratched, and can get very dirty  The groove can be damaged in playback (if the needle and tone arm adjustment is not right)  Vinyl is soft !!!  Vinyl and shellac can suffer chemical damage
  9. 9. Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 9 Gramophone damage  Dropping a needle onto a vinyl disc  Oil coming to the surface on a lacquer disc
  10. 10. 10 Where was I? Only three ways to preserve: Keep what you have: only works for film • Audio, Video: analogue technology obsolete Copy on same technology:only works for film • Audio, Video: analogue technology obsolete So we are left with only one option (for audio and video): Copy using new technology
  11. 11. 11 Preservation of Film  Many excellent example of conservation  Film technology still exists (but in decline)  BUT – the situation is rapidly changing  Kodak in severe economic trouble  Commercial cinemas changing to digital projection − Norway changed completely in 2011-2012  Commercial cinema will change or go out of business  Commercial cinema will not keep old projectors
  12. 12. 12 The end of film projection? “ We're About to Lose 1,000 Small Theaters That Can't Convert to Digital. Does It Matter?” Indiewire, USA 2012
  13. 13. 13 Digitisation of Film  Now: needed for access  Internet  Digital cinema  Soon: needed for preservation  When manufacture of film stock is stopped  Result: ALL media needs to be digitised, audio and video and film  That's a lot of content that has to be digitised  There isn't enough time  There isn't enough money
  14. 14. 14 PRESTO Digitisation “Better Faster Cheaper” Daniel Teruggi, Institut National de l'Audiovisuel (INA), Paris Basic concepts: 1) Dealing with the whole collection 2) Developing a strategy  For the institution and its collection  For the preservation work 3) Developing a preservation plan
  15. 15. 15 Digitisation Planning  All the Presto information on a wiki: www.preservationguide.co.uk/RDWiki/pmwiki.php  StrategyStrategy – what does your institution do?  What does the collection do?  What can digitisation do?  PlanningPlanning – making a preservation plan  How to estimate a budget  Building a business case
  16. 16. 16 Collection Strategy  Long-term purpose of the digitisation  Preserving the collection  Maintaining services (old business)  Creating new services (new business)  Physical Outcomes:  Digital files  Mass storage  Cheaper, better maintenance  Cheaper, better digital access copies  Web access
  17. 17. 17 Access Outcomes  Collection access from computer stations  Mediatheque approach  Collection access via the Internet  With restricted access − British Film Institute: higher education, public libraries … and on YouTube − British Library Sound Archive: higher education institutions only  Or even unrestricted access − INA has 30 000 hours of broadcast content online !
  18. 18. 18 Restrictions on Access  Attitudes: we don't do that  Fear: somebody might complain  Rights: we don't hold the rights A solution: 1) public institutions create public value by opening their collections as widely as possible 2) non-fiction content has the most information and the least rights problems We have a public service obligation to create access to our collections !
  19. 19. 19 Access: Technical Requirements  A usable catalogue  Online support services: questions, linking to online sales, dealing with faults  Logins, access control, authentication, data protection …  Computing power to support what could be large numbers of people requiring access  UK National Archive crashed; Europeana crashed  Managing lots of information technology
  20. 20. 20 Digital Archive: workflow  Everything changes when shelves disappear:  Acquisition: digital ingest  Cataloguing: complex metadata issues: embedded metadata, preservation metadata, mapping  Curation: huge opportunity to create online collections  Research: self-research, fast scanning of 'hits' – changes the requirements of cataloguing  Access: requirements need to be built into the digitisation workflow (access copies, public metadata, rights clearance, censorship?)
  21. 21. 21 Getting Started  Map – The collection needs to be divided by format, condition, purpose ...  Priorities – arrange the “areas on the map” according to what needs to be done first wiki: Make a Map of your Collection Divide the collection by physical formats, and collect the following information on each format: age range storage history genre or value physical condition Getting Started
  22. 22. 22 BBC film examples from wiki Map: http://www.preservationguide.co.uk/RDWiki/pmwiki.php ?n=Main.GettingStarted Strategy: http://www.preservationguide.co.uk/RDWiki/pmwiki.php ?n=Main.PreservationStrategy Plan: http://www.preservationguide.co.uk/RDWiki/pmwiki.php ?n=Main.PresPlan Also: tutorials on PrestoCentre website collection strategy and preservation plans_V1.01_0.pdf mapping your collection_V1.01_0.pdf
  23. 23. Collection Strategy & Plan • PDFs of wiki ‘chapters’ – Collection Strategy – Preservation Strategy – Preservation Plan and Budget – Collection Strategy Preservation Strategy – Preservation Plan and Budget • Tutorials on PrestoCentre – collection strategy and preservation plans_V1.01_0.pdf – mapping your collection_V1.01_0.pdf 30 October 2014 SIPAD Workshop
  24. 24. 24 The Factory Approach The division of labour in pin manufacturing: (and the great increase in the quantity of work that results)
  25. 25.  The division of labour in pin manufacturing: (and the great increase in the quantity of work that results)  Approach: NOT about cutting corners or reducing quality  Instead: about cutting wasted time and wasted effort  Batches: doing one thing at a time, and then doing it again (and again, and again)  Problem: how to keep the work interesting! 25 The Factory Approach
  26. 26. 26 A BBC Preservation Factory
  27. 27. 27 The Factory Approach  “Division of labour” requires having specialists, which means having a team  Which means having a middle-sized or larger project  But: even a single person can use a batch approach, and get some efficiencies
  28. 28. BBC Preservation: £5M per year (for 20 years) Audio: 7000 hours per year of ¼ inch tape Also digitised 63 000 “sepmag” elements: separate magnetic sound tracks for film; − Transferred to CD (good!) and to polyester (bad!) Also 35 000 shellac and vinyl recordings Also DAT and MD digital recordings 2” videotape: 46 000 tapes, transferred to D3 or Digibeta, done over 7 years 1” videotape: 80 000 in 5 yrs, to D3/Digibeta  U-matic: 40 000 in 3 yrs, to MPEG-2 files
  29. 29. 29  News film: 43 000 items in 3 years  Ektachrome; digitised to SD video (Digibeta)  10% of total cost is cataloguing  20 to 30% is quality control (checking)  Since 2008: transfer 40k D3 videotape to files:  Uncompressed; MXF wrapper = INGEX  Now: transfer of BetaSP and Digibeta to files  Major confusion over High Definition formats !
  30. 30. 30 Discussion  Digitisation projects of delegates  Audio, video, film  Which physical formats (eg ¼-inch audio tape, 1-inch video tape, 16mm B&W film … ) ?  Size: how much content, how many people, how many years ?
  31. 31. 31 Time for a break After the break – a choice ! 1)Low-level: standards and best practice for audio, video and film 2)Higher level: case studies for preservation and access 3) Your questions on digitisation  your long-term plan?  your immediate problems?
  32. 32. 30 October 2014 SIPAD Workshop
  33. 33. Digitisation Issues: • Audio and Video: no problems at all with the digitisation technology – the problems are with: – Playback of originals – Standards: compression, formats
  34. 34. Audio holdings (TAPE data) Carrier % wax cylinders 0.03 coarse groove replicated disks (‘78s’,‘shellacs’) 1.9 instantaneous disks of any kind 0.2 microgroove disks (LPs) 17.5 open reel magnetic tape 38.6 compact cassettes 20.6 R-DAT 2.5 replicated CDs, DVDs 16.5 recordable and rewritable CDs, DVDs 1.4 Minidisks 0.4 Other 0.3 Total 100
  35. 35. Audio: major problems • Wax cylinders: condition, equipment • Lacquer discs: condition • Sticky shed on 6mm tape playback • DAT recordings: technical standards, condition, equipment • CD ‘ripping’ – common issue for digital-digital transfer: error concealment (and what to do about it) • IASA TC-04: Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects, March 2009. – BWAV, 96kHz, “24bit”; BBC do 44.1kHz, 16bit
  36. 36. How to digitise audio • IASA TC-04 • 48 kHz, “24 bit” – 96 kHz recommended • Save as a wav file • Broadcast Wave Format recommended
  37. 37. Film: major problems • No problem with playback equipment ! • Some film can last centuries • Some film already destroyed vinegar syndrome; colour fade; mold • Telecine out, datacine in
  38. 38. Datacine for film digitisation • Batch process • HD or better for 16mm • Many archives doing 2K scanning • No grading shot-by-shot – so a higher dynamic range is needed: 14 bits or better • Needs sprocketless transport to cope with fragile film, shrinkage, splices • Infrared technology for scratch detection • Wet-gate for scratch concealment (on one side) • Several new sprocketless systems, €80 to 240k
  39. 39. How to Digitise Film B&G document on PrestoCentre http://www.prestocentre.eu/sites/dev.prestocentre. antenna.nl/files/filmscanning_v1.03.pdf White Paper: Film scanning considerations By Tom de Smet and Harm Jan Triemstra
  40. 40. Sound on Film • Successful digital processing of optical sound tracks now very well established by Chase Audio, Hollywood – But expensive • Analogue capture most cost-effective if sound track in reasonable condition • Much TV archive material has separate sound tracks: sepopt, sepmag (beware vinegar!)
  41. 41. Video: major problems • As for audio: equipment, operators, fragile and decaying media; sticky-shed • Plus: time base correction and dropout ‘concealment’ not built into old equipment • Colour: composite signals and their decoding; – BBC: a composite original is PAL-decoded and saved as component, even though “the original” is composite • Head wear, head life, head replacement – alternative technology for reading videotape has been propose
  42. 42. Video digitisation issues • What codec, what file format? – Uncompressed, lossless, lossy – Lossless: JPEG2000, FFV1 (many others) – MOV, AVI, MXF ... (cf LOC FADGI case studies) • Endgame: uncompressed (no codec !) • BBC: saving uncompressed from D3 transfers to files: INGEX open-source software (as used by Tate Galleries, London)
  43. 43. How to digitise video 1. Save the original 2. Digitise @ SDI = 4:2:2 = 200 megabits/sec 3. Save exactly as digitised = uncompressed 4. Use an open source file format (MXF or ?) 3b – or lossless = lossless JPEG2000, 3c – or ‘mezzanine’ = high-quality lossy (but only for low quality originals) (digibeta is a ‘mezzanine’ format)
  44. 44. Common issue: quality control • Computer processing exists – in professional audio equipment: Quadrega, NOA … • ‘fault detection’ technology from restoration work • Joanneum video problem detector = VidiCert • Audio Inspector https://www.audioinspector.com/ • New QC software from Dave Rice, BAVC http://www.bavc.org/qctools • Key issues: workflow integration, statistics
  45. 45. How to Digitise Film • B&G document on PrestoCentre • http://www.prestocentre.eu/sites/dev.prestocentr e.antenna.nl/files/filmscanning_v1.03.pdf White Paper: Film scanning considerations By Tom de Smet and Harm Jan Triemstra

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