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  1. Bio-fertilizers
  2. INTRODUCTION  Generally, agricultural land gets impoverished after long term cultivation, if not supplemented properly with inputs.  To supplement the soil nutrient content under conventional farming system, we need to apply high doses of agrochemicals which in turn pollute the ecosystem.  Therefore, in order to make agriculture sustainable, it is necessary to implement a balanced and responsible use of organic agriculture.  The principles of organic farming also outline the similar concepts where the soil health and biodiversity is built up to sustain the plant growth in longer term.
  3. Ill-effects of Chemical Fertilizers: • Leaching out • Polluting water basins • Destroying micro-organisms and friendly insects; making the crop more susceptible to the attack of diseases • Reducing the soil fertility and thus causing irreparable damage to the overall system
  4. What is Bio fertilizer? Biofertilizers are natural fertilizers that are microbial inoculants of bacteria, algae and fungi (separately or in combination). which may help biological nitrogen fixation for the benefit of plants. They help build up the soil micro-flora and there by the soil health. Biofertilizer also include organic fertilizers(manure, etc.) Use of bio-fertilizer is recommended for improving the soil fertility in organic farming
  5. 1)For nitrogen -Rhizobium for legumes crops -Azotobacter/ Azospirilium for non legume crops -Acetobacter for sugarcane only. -Blue-Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla for low land paddy. 2)For phosphorus -Phosphate solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) for all crops to be applied with Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirilium and Acetobacter 3)For enriched compost -Phosphate solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and Azotobacter culture -Cellulolytic fungal culture Types of Biofertilizer
  6. Symbiotic nitrogen fixers. Most important symbiotic Nitrogen fixing bacteria are Rhizobium and Azospirillum. Rhizobium:  Rhizobium lives in the root hairs of the legumes by forming nodules  Plant root supply essential minerals and newly synthesized substance to the bacteria  The name Rhizobium was established by Frank in 1889.
  7.  A new classification has been established for Rhizobium.  That is 'slow growing rhizobia' known as Bradyrhizobium and the other group is 'fast growing rhizobia' called Rhizobium. Rhizobium
  8. Azospirillum: It is mainly present in cereal plants. Inhabits both root cells as well as surrounding of roots forming symbiotic relation and increasing nitrogen fixing potential of the cereal plant. Azospirillum -a dominant soil microbe. Nitrogen is fixed in the range of 20- 40 kg/ha Considerable quantity of nitrogen fertilizer up to 25-30% can be saved by the use of Azospirillum inoculant. These species are used as nitrogen supplying Bio-Fertilizers.
  9. Free living bacteria Large number of free living or non -symbiotic bacteria (does not form nodules but makes association by living in the rhizosphere) present in soil. Commonly used free living bacteria are Azotobacter Klebsiella Azotobacter is a biofertilizer which provides the required amount of nitrogen to the plant from the soil.
  10. Azotobactor Azotobactor is a heterotrophic free living nitrogen fixing bacteria present in alkaline and neutral soils. Azotobactor -most commonly occurring species in arable soils of India. It can also synthesize growth promoting substances such as auxins and gibberellins and also to some extent the vitamins.
  11. Many strains of Azotobactor also exhibit fungicidal properties against certain species of fungus. Response of Azotobactor has been seen in rice, maize, cotton, sugarcane, pearl millet, vegetable and some plantation crops. It improves seed germination and plant growth. Azotobacter is heaviest breathing organism and requires a large amount of organic carbon for its growth.
  12. Algae as a biofertilizer Another group of free living nitrogen fixers are cyanobacteria. Commonly called as Blue green algae. Nitrogen fixation takes place in specialized cells called ‘Heterocyst’ BGA very common in rice field. Unlike Azotobacter BGA are not inhibited by the presence of chemical fertilizers.
  13. They are easy to produce Usually they are mass produced in cement tanks filled with fresh water. Not require any processing Quite and cheap Cost of 10kg may be Rs.30-40 only Beneficial in certain crops like vegetables, cotton, sugarcane. Eg. of some algal biofertilizers are Anabena Nostoc Oscillatoria
  14. Azolla is a tiny fresh water fern common in ponds, ditches and rice fields. It has been used as a biofertilizer for a rice in all major rice growing countries including India, Thailand, Korea, Philippines, Brazil and West Africa. The nitrogen fixing work is accomplished by the symbiotic relationship between the fern and BGA, Anabena azollae. In addition to nitrogen the decomposed Azolla also provides K, P, Zn and Fe to the crop Azolla as a bio fertilizer
  15. Azolla biomass gets doubled within 5-7 days by vegetative methods. fix 40-80 kg nitrogen / ha / year. good manure for flooded rice. Increase of crop yield up to 15-20% has been observed while fertilizing the rice with Azolla Tolerant to heat and cold.
  16. Products: • Phospo: it release insoluble phosphorus in soil and fix this phosphorus in clay minerals which is of great significance in agriculture. • Rhizo: bacterial plays a very important role in agriculture by inducing nitrogen fixings nodules on the root of legumes such as peas and alfafa. • Azotobacter: fixes the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil and make it available to the plants. It protects the root from other pathogens present in the soil. • Trichoderma: it is a non pathogenic and eco-friendly product. The product is antagonistic hyper parasitic against different pathogens in the field and economically well established biocontrol agent.
  17. • Composter: composter breaks down any organic matter such as dead plants from yard waste, thereby increasing the soil productivity. • Tricho-Card: Trichogramma is an efficient destroyer of eggs of many leaf and flower eaters, stems, fruit, shoot. It can be used in a variety of crops such as sugarcane, corn, vegetables, paddy and apple. • Vermi Compost: it is 100% pure eco-friendly organic fertilizer. Has nitrogen phosphorus, potassium, organic carbon, sulphur, hormones, vitamins, enzymes and antibiotics which helps to improve the quality and quantity of yield.
  18. ADVANTAGES • They form an important association with other soil microbes and help in nutrient supply. • Fixes atmospheric nitrogen. • Increase availability or uptake of nutrients through solubilization or increased absorption. • Stimulate plant growth through hormonal or antibiotics action or by decomposing organic waste. • They are cheap, hence, reduced cost of cultivation. • Improves soil properties and sustaining soil fertility Lead to soil enrichment. • Decompose plant residues, and stabilize C:N ratio of soil • Are compatible with long term sustainability. • They are eco-friendly and pose no damage to the environment • Renewable source of nutrients • Replace 25-30% chemical fertilizers • Increase the grain yields by 10-40%. • Secrete fungistatic and antibiotic like substances
  19. Disadvantages • As such there is no harmful impact of biofertilizers if it is used properly some constraints: • The acceptability of biofertilizers has been rather low chiefly because they do not produce quick and spectacular responses. • Require skill in production and application. • Biofertilizers require special care for long-term storage because they are alive. Difficult to store. • If other microorganisms contaminate the carrier medium or if growers use the wrong strain, they are not as effective. • Biofertilizers lose their effectiveness if the soil is too hot or dry.
  20. BIOCOMPOST • Eco friendly organic fertilizer • Prepared from the sugar industry waste material which is decomposed and enriched of various plants and human friendly bacteria and fungi. • Consists of nitrogen, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and various useful fungi like decomposing fungi, Trichoderma viridea which protects the plants from various soil borne disease. • Increase soil fertility which results to a good quality products to the farmers.
  21. Compost • The aerobically decomposed remnants of organic matter. Used in landscaping, agriculture as a soil conditioner and fertilizer. • Useful for erosion control, wetland construction, and as landfill cover. • Compost serves as a growing medium, or a porous, absorbent material that holds moisture and soluble minerals, providing the support and nutrients. • To maximize plant growth, it is sometimes necessary to: • Dilute with soil or peat to reduce salinity or to add neutralizers (pH closer to 7). • Additional nutrients like fertilizers or manure, and materials to improve drainage and aeration, (sand or clay granules).
  22. Types of Compost • There are different ways to compost, starting with layers of ‘brown’ and ‘green’ biodegradable waste mixed with garden soil. • ‘Brown’ waste- old straw, tough vegetable stems. • ‘Green’ waste- biodegradable waste that breaks down faster, such as fruit and cut flowers. • There is also Vermicomposting, which uses worms to help break down the organic waste.
  23. EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISM INDIGENOUS MICROORGANISM • In ecology, an indigenous species is an organism which is native to a given region or ecosystem. •Contrast with introduced species (naturalized or exotic species) which is an organism that is not indigenous to a given place, but has been transported there as a result of human activity. •Lactobacillus culture.
  24. Types of EM • Lactic acid bacteria: Lactobacillus plantarum; L.casei, Streptococcus lactis • Photosynthetic bacteria: Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides. • Yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis • •Actinomycetes: Streptomyces albus; S. griseus • •Fermenting fungi: Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis
  25. BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE OF EM IN AGRICULTURE • Promotes germination, flowering, fruiting and ripening in plants. • Improves physical, chemical and biological environments of the soil and suppresses soil borne pathogens and pests. • Enhances the photosynthetic capacity of crops. • Ensure better germination and plant establishment • Increases the efficacy of OM as fertilizers. • Develops resistance of plants to pests and disease.
  26. Bio - fertilizers application methods There are three ways of using these N-fixing/P.S.M. bacteria. Seed treatment Root dipping Soil applications
  27. Seed Treatment Seed treatment is a most common method adopted for all types of inoculant. The seed treatment is effective and economic. Seed treatment with Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum along with P.S.M. seed treatment can be done with any of two or more bacteria. no side effect. important things has the seeds must be coated first with Rhizobium or Azotobacter or Azospirillum when each seeds get a layer of above bacteria then the P.S.M. inoculant has to be treated on outer layer of the seeds.
  28. This method will provide maximum number of population of each bacteria required for better results. Mixing the any of two bacteria and the treatment of seed will not provide maximum number of bacteria of individuals.
  29. Root dipping Application of Azospirillum with the paddy/vegetable plants this method is needed. The required quantity of Azospirillum has to be mixed with 5-10 ltr of water at one corner of the field and all the plants have to kept for minimum ½ an hour before sowing .
  30. Soil application P.S.M. has to be used as a soil application use 2 kgs of P.S.M. per acre. Mix P.S.M. with 400 to 600 kgs of Cowdung along with ½ bag of rock phosphate if available. The mixture of P.S.M., Cowdung and rock phosphate have to be kept under any tree shade or celling for over night and maintain 50% moisture. Use the mixture as a soil application in rows or during leveling of soil.

Notas del editor

  1. Generally, agricultural land gets impoverished after long term cultivation, if not supplemented properly with inputs. To supplement the soil nutrient content under conventional farming system, we need to apply high doses of agrochemicals which in turn pollute the ecosystem. Therefore, in order to make agriculture sustainable, it is necessary to implement a balanced and responsible use of organic agriculture. The principles of organic farming also outline the similar concepts where the soil health and biodiversity is built up to sustain the plant growth in longer term.
  2. Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects.
  3. In the last century, chemical fertilizers were used in agriculture. Farmers were happy of getting increased yield in agriculture in the beginning. •But slowly chemical fertilizers started displaying their ill-effects such as:
  4. A biofertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting substances.
  5. The symbiotic bacteria make an association with crop plants through forming nodules in their roots. The free living bacteria do not form any association but live freely and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Rhizobium lives in the root hairs of the legumes by forming nodules Acetobacter is a genus of acetic acid bacteria. Acetic acid bacteria are characterized by the ability to convert ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. Of these, the genus Acetobacter is distinguished by the ability to oxidize lactate and acetate into carbon dioxide and water Azospirillum- This is a free living or non -symbiotic bacteria (does not form nodules but makes association by living in the rhizosphere). Azospirillum species establish an association with many plants particularly with C, plants such as maize, sorghum,sugarcane, etc. Azolla- is a symbiotic superorganism that captures all the nitrogen fertilizer it needs to grow from the air around it.
  6. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts and tamarind. Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen.
  7. Rhizobium can fix 50-300 kg of Nitrogen/ha
  8. Nitrogen is fixed in the range of 20- 40 kg/ha in the rhizosphere in non-leguminous plants such as cereals, millets, Oilseeds, cotton etc. Azospirillum is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, non-fermentative and nitrogen-fixing bacterial genus from the family of Rhodospirillaceae. Azospirillum bacteria can promote plant growth
  9. Azotobacter species are Gram-negative bacteria found in neutral and alkaline soils,[1][2] in water, and in association with some plants.
  10. Azotobacter are inhibited by the presence of chemical fertilizers.
  11. No chemical fertilizers added, inoculation of the algae can result in 10-14% increase in crop yields.
  12. Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae. They are extremely reduced in form and specialized, looking nothing like other typical ferns but more resembling duckweed or some mosses.
  13. Peat (turf) is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or mires.
  14. Developed by Prof. Higa in 1982. •Was used in agriculture and environment field. •Thereafter EM has been for animal husbandly, industry human welfare, education, construction and medical field. What is EM Complex microorganism solution. •It contains mainly 3 species such as Lactic acid bacteria, Yeast, Phototrophic Bacteria. •Collected from food industries and nature. •All microorganisms in EM are non geneticly modified bacteria.