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Report Writing PPT

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Class Presentation on Report Writing B.Tech(CSE), Amity University

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Report Writing PPT

  1. 1. Report Writing • Nikhil Sharma • Shweta Tyagi • Vishesh Trivedi • Vipin • Parth Gupta • Rishabh Shukla
  2. 2. Contents Meaning Objective Types of Report Writing Steps of Report Writing Significance of Report Writing Layout of Report Writing Mechanism of Report Writing
  3. 3. Meaning A report is an account of a specific matter that a person has observed or investigated in some depth. A report is written for a clear purpose and to a particular audience. Specific information and evidence . Structured format.
  4. 4. Purpose of reports Transmitting information. Interpretation and explanation of events. Making Decisions. Communication with external stakeholders. Development of information base. Recommending actions.
  5. 5. Types of Reports Formal (carefully structured, stress objectivity) . Informal.(usually short messages with natural, casual use of language). Informational (annual reports, monthly financial reports, and reports on personnel absenteeism). Analytical (scientific research, feasibility reports, and real-estate appraisals). Recommendation or Proposal(RFPs).
  6. 6. Steps involved in report writing
  7. 7. Step 1: Decide on the 'Terms of reference’ What is it about? What exactly is needed? Why is it needed? When do I need to do it? Who is it for, or who is it aimed at?
  8. 8. Step 2: Decide on the procedure How you'll write the report: What information do I need? Do I need to do any background reading? What articles or documents do I need? Do I need to contact the library for assistance? Do I need to interview or observe people? Do I have to record data? How will I go about this?
  9. 9. Step 3: Find the information Research and reading Steps for writing an assignment
  10. 10. Step 4: Decide on the structure The structure can include: A title page. Executive summary. Contents. An introduction. Terms of reference. Procedure. Findings. Conclusions. Recommendations. References/Bibliography. Appendices.
  11. 11. Step 5: Draft the first part of your report Findings Appendices Step 6: Analyse your findings and draw conclusions What have I found? What's significant or important about my findings? What do my findings suggest? For example, your conclusion may descri Don’t include any new information in the conclusion.
  12. 12. Step 7: Make recommendations Reread your findings and conclusions. what actions should they carry out? Check that your recommendations are practical and are based logically on your conclusions. Ensure you include enough detail for the reader Step 8: Compile a reference list
  13. 13. Step 9: Revise your draft report Required sections are included, and are in the correct order.  Information is accurate, with no gaps. Clear and effective as possible.
  15. 15. Why is report writing important? Report is an important means of communication. Reporting helps the owners of business, company ,organizations, or government to make prompt decision, making and planning.
  16. 16. More and more reports? Technological advancement Growth in size and complexity Diverse differences Growth in specialization
  17. 17. BROAD DIVISION INDIVIDUAL SECTIONS l. Preliminary Material Title of Report Table of Contents Abstract / Synopsis 2. Body of Report Introduction Literature Review Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion Recommendations 3. Supplementary Material References / Bibliography Appendices
  18. 18. Title page The title itself is an important opportunity to tell the potential reader what your research is about. Format for the title page is likely to be a required in your discipline, so you need to check what that is. Title page bearing: Full title of the report Name of the author Name of spnosors or authority
  19. 19. Table Of Contents The titles of parts, sections or chapters and their principal, and their principal subdivisions should be listed in the table of Contents and must be worded exactly as they appear in the body of the report. It is advisable to use numbers for; Heading: e.g. 5 ANALYISIS AND DISCUSSION Sub-heading: 5.2 Effect of Stress Level Sub sub-heading: 5.2.1 Mean Stress (No further sub-division is allowed) Major headings and sub-headings are typed closer with the left margin. Candidate is free to label or give title for each chapter as
  20. 20. ACKNOWLEDGMENT In this part, every person whom you want to mention or dedicate your work can be added here. It might be: Family Friends Respondents Collègues Fellow mates Subordinates Professor....etc.
  21. 21. Abstract / Summary Placed immediately before the first chapter of the report It should take the form of a short factual statement identifying the topic of your study, the approach adopted & the findings. Including the conclusions. Birdseye view of the result The abstract should give a brief exposition of the research problems, purposes of the study, scope of study, research approach and limitation.
  22. 22. Chp 1 - Introduction Background of study Research Question Objective of study Limitations
  23. 23. Chp 2 - Literature Review, Or Context Of The Study describe the current state of research in your defined area; consider whether there are any closely related areas that you also need to refer to; identify a gap where you argue that further research is needed; and explain how you plan to attend to that particular research gap.
  24. 24. Chp3 - Methodology Methodology Checklist Plain when, where, and how the research was done? Include subsections or informative headings as appropriate (e.g., evaluation criteria)? Mention which method/tools were used to collect data Purpose of Methodology The method section answers these two main questions: How was the data collected or generated? How was it analysed? In other words, it shows your reader how you obtained your results.
  25. 25. Result & Discussion  RESULT  The key to a great results section is in describing your results, you need to tell to your readers exactly what you found out.  Result should include:  Focus on key results.  Be clear and concise.  Don’t go into too much detail.  DISCUSSION  This section has four purposes, it should:  Interpret and explain your result.  Answer your research question.  Justify your approach.  Evaluate your study.
  26. 26. Conclusion & Recommendations  CONCLUSION  This section should be much shorter than the discussion section.  It should include main points That have emerged and what they mean for your field.  RECOMMENDATIONS  These can take two forms:  Recommendations for further study.  Recommendation for change.
  27. 27. References & Appendeces  REFERENCES  Whenever you cite information from another source, you must credit the source in your references.  APPENDICES  Information that is not essential to explain your findings, but that supports your analysis (especially repetitive or lengthy information), validates your conclusions or pursues a related point should be placed in an appendix.  Examples of information that could be included in an appendix include:  Figures  Tables  Graphs  Charts  Pictures etc
  29. 29. 1. Size and Physical Design: Unruled paper of standard size If it is in hand written than use black or blue ink. Margin  Right side: half inches  Left side: One or one and half inches Header and Footer: One inches from sides spaced should be left
  30. 30. 2. Layout The layout of the report and various types of reports have been described in this presentation earlier which should be taken as a guide for report writing. 3.Treatment of quotations Definitions or Quotations should be placed in quotation marks and double spaced forming an immediate part of the text.
  31. 31. 4.Footnotes Footnotes serves two purposes: Page Number: For Cross References: Asterisk(*) sign may be used to prevent confusion and supplement note related to particular word should be mentioned below at that page. 5. Documentation Style Author’s name in normal order Title of work,underlinded to indicate italics Place and date of publication Page number
  32. 32. 6. Abbreviations: The use of abbreviations is usually optional, but of great help to the reader. Providing an alphabetical list of their definitions improves the readability of the document, allowing readers to easily look up unfamiliar abbreviations. 7. Use of Statistics, Charts and Graphs Statistics are usually presented in the form of tables, line-graphs, pictograms etc. Such type of presentation should be self-explanatory and complete in itself.
  33. 33. 8. The final draft Revising and rewriting the rough draft of the report should be done with great care before writing the final draft. 9. Bibliography The purpose behind writing a bibliography is to communicate to the reader in a sequential manner to make the contents look decent & standardized.
  34. 34. 10. Preparation of index At the end of report, an index should be always prepared, it acts as a good guide to the reader. Index may be prepared of 3 types: 1. Author index 2. Subject index 3. Content index