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Flipped Classrooms, Activities, and Tasks in the Classroom for session with Kazakh teachers of Science

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Dec 2016

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Flipped Classrooms, Activities, and Tasks in the Classroom for session with Kazakh teachers of Science

  1. 1. Flipped Classrooms, Activities and Tasks in the Classroom Robert J. Dickey Keimyung University Korea TESOL
  2. 2. Flipped
  3. 3. Compare
  4. 4. Compare
  5. 5. Challenges
  6. 6. Challenges • T______ • T______ • T______
  7. 7. Challenges • Time –In class –Teacher prep –Student out-of-class
  8. 8. Challenges • Time –In class –Teacher prep –Student out-of-class • Technology –In class –Preparations –Student out-of-class
  9. 9. Challenges • Time –In class –Teacher prep –Student out-of-class • Technology • Tradition –Culture –Examinations-focus
  10. 10. Discussion
  11. 11. Robert J. Dickey Keimyung University (Daegu, S. Korea)
  12. 12. Tasks & Activities Task-based Learning Robert J. Dickey Keimyung University Korea TESOL
  13. 13. What is a task?
  14. 14. Task = Doing for a purpose
  15. 15. Language Learning Objective(s) • Not just an activity or exercise • Not just language practice • Not “teaching time” • Intimately connected to current language-learning syllabus objectives (i.e., this is a language learning classroom)
  16. 16. Task-based Defined - Willis • Activities where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome • is central to the methodological cycle • learners are free chose whatever language form they wish
  17. 17. Task-based - Ellis • A workplan (plan for learning) • Primary focus on meaning • Real-world processes of language use (even if task is artificial) • Any of the 4 language skills • Involves cognitive processes • Clearly-defined communicative outcome
  18. 18. Task-based - Nunan • Syllabus is centered NOT on an ordered list of linguistic items but on a collection of tasks • Distinction between –Real-world tasks –Pedagogical tasks • Mobilizing grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning
  19. 19. Pedagogical Task - Nunan a piece of classroom work that involves the learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning, and in which the intention is to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form.“ (Nunan, 2004, p.4).
  20. 20. Project-based Learning • Similar conceptually to tasks – but longer-term • More amenable to – in-class plus out-of-classroom work – team focus • Fredricka Stoller argues “there is always a tangible outcome” in project-based, not so in task-based.
  21. 21. J. Willis’ “Framework” (1996)
  22. 22. 3 Stages (phases) of TBLL 1. Pre-Task – Preparation – A mini-task (practice and understanding) 2. Task – during the “main” task – Outcome is principal focus – Language-learning Objective 3. Post-Task – Language-learning support
  23. 23. 1. Pre-Task stage • Motivation • “Framing” the task –Inform what the learners will do –Nature of the outcome –Signposts along the way • Preparation to perform the task • How much? (time) Addressing Cognitive Load in Task
  24. 24. Students should understand that they have to “multi-task”
  25. 25. Preparation to Perform Task • Similar Task –Teacher-led practice –Observe a model (oral or written) –Easier task, broken in parts –“Task-designed to fail” • Strategic Planning • Non-task preparation (form groups, etc.)
  26. 26. Non-Task Preparation • Pre-teaching vocabulary, grammar – Strong vs. Weak forms of TBLL (Ellis’ Task-Supported Language Learning) • Examine similar but different functions/setting
  27. 27. 2. Task (main) stage a. Task Performance Options (planned before class) b. Task Process Options (evolve “live” inside the task event)
  28. 28. a. Task Performance Options • Time limit? –Strictly enforced? Re-negotiated? More time  more accuracy? (Lang, Content) • Access to data during the task? – How complex is the data? – Can see notes or whole data, or nothing? • Surprise? (change something) • Pairs/Groups, moving around
  29. 29. b. Task Process Options • Classroom participants must forget where they are and why they are there • Classroom participants must believe in learn by doing rather than by studying • Teacher monitors learners’ performance to impact future teaching and tasks • Focus-on-Form classroom with teacher interaction in tasks (error-correction)
  30. 30. 3. Post-task (stage) • Repeat performance • Reflecting on performance – Individually or in groups • Focus on Forms – Consciousness-Raising – Noticing – Review of Errors (Explicit, Non-explicit) – Production Practice activities/exercises
  31. 31. Task Input • Data –“Text” (Written or Oral) –Non-verbal materials Realia, pictures, diagrams, tables,or other… –Specific to the task (model) or less- specific • Procedures –Consider “setting” (groups, etc)
  32. 32. Factors Affecting Task Difficulty • Context & Abstractness • Degree of cognitive demand • Access to background knowledge • Level of learner support available • Language complexity • Emotional stress in task completion • Interest and Motivation of the learner
  33. 33. Critique of TBLL • Learners might be led to focus on –meaning over form, –“fluent” rather than challenging language • “Practice” of inaccurate or simplistic language • Time away from instruction (new materials)
  34. 34. Discussion
  35. 35. Robert J. Dickey Keimyung University (Daegu, S. Korea) See all Powerpoints at