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Preso to help management understand the general steps that must be undertaken to complete a change.
Could be organizational only but often a combo of organizational and individual with one or more departments affected.
Give a few examples of each (suggestions included in notes).
This is a combo of Individual and Organizational Change dependent upon complexity.
Readiness – Takes a lot of effort by knowledgeable people Assess Scope and Objectives
Train About Change Management
Plan Change Training Development and Delivery
Identify Pre and Post-Change Measurements
Change Work – Takes commitment and involvement at all levels of the organization Change & Corrective Activities Solicit Feedback throughout change work Communicate from Immediate Supervisors not the CCB or PMO Tracking and Reporting Review and track completely Be honest and thorough Accuracy is key Incorporate a few on-the-fly Executive needs but retain control Resistance Management Resistance is normal What to do with persistent resistance Communicate through Immediate Supervisors
Return to “New” Normal Recognition After Project Review Process Changes Post Change Review “New” Normal requires commitment by staff to ensure the change stuck, that its working for the organization and the results are what is needed.
Assess Scope and Objectives: Sweeping change? Needs Individual and Organizational changes? Which people types, departments, internal/external are affected? Is it a gradual or radical change? What mission or vision of the company, department, project, cohorts? Does this change conflict with any of those? Is this change PERCEIVED as conflicted with any of those? Risks of not changing?
Assess Readiness: Impact on groups – what they believe what they want what they have now, what they think about this change Concurrent change – is there change in other business areas? How much? Does it squeeze resources, affect morale, affect Sponsorship? Resistance – Who will resist and likely when? How will change team and Sponsors mitigate this risk? What resistance is helpful? P&L and Cost Analysis Human Resources Death Nell to a successful project? Not understanding what success means. Do concrete measures of success exist and are they reasonable?
Communication Planning: WIFM (What’s In It For Me) in all communication The audience What is communicated – Building Awareness and Desire, Status, Effect When it is communicated. Planned, crisis By whom it is communicated Easing Coconut Wireless What non-change communications must continue despite squeezed availability of HR, managers, staff? How will communication be monitored? How will feedback be recognized and incorporated especially when squeezed availability? How will communication be tailored to individual types – independent, passive, aggressive Budgets and finance changes; vendor charges and contracts Communicate from the top and from immediate supervisors for sure
Client Override – How will a CCB or SI handle a critical override or approval reversal during change by a client? That is, what things might happen that a CCB or SI will stop working until resolution over such as legal, HIPAA….
Sponsorships: Direct CCB? (Change Control Board) Authority Approval Responsibility Time Budget
Indirect Board/Governing Body support? Legislative/government support? Client/Partner support? CEO/Exec Dir support? Exec Team support? Management support? Coconut wireless support? CFO - Cost Analysis/Show-Back
Plan to drive active and visible participation by leaders (from all parts of org) throughout the process for coalition.
This guy has time so s/he is on the CCB. No! Qualifications ability to get it done, viewpoint, influence, knowledge of subject matter, business intelligence.
Training about Change Management: Managers and supervisors are key before, during, after. Likely resistors (direct and indirect). Identify personality types and communication plan between CCB leader or Executive Sponsor and these managers/supervisors! Give management what it needs to coach employees. DON’T make fatal mistake of ignoring training and reporting! DON’T just direct managers to dry text. DO incorporate training in a variety of ways throughout the process. Put managers on CCB for Management and Employee training Identify Downstream training for change acceptance
Plan Change Training Development and Delivery: Required skills for the changed environment/process/structure Awareness that change will come and why. Thorough and complete skills assessment to handle the change. Training offer for gaps. Forms and activities used during change. Consider alternatives for abilities schism. Some employees’ skills or personality types will no longer match the new way of doing business. How will you deal with them respectfully and with their needs in mind? Create training materials based upon skills, behaviors, knowledge needed to 1) make the change, 2) retain the change and 3) recognize when the change isn’t working or is detrimental. DON’T WAIT UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE and BE OPEN TO CHANGE
Identify Pre and Post-Change Measurements The change means what in a tangible way? How do you know the change is good for your business and how would you measure it? How long will it take before you 1) expect to see a change, 2) expect to see progress toward a change, 3) believe a change isn’t effective, 4) believe a change should be reverted (disaster) Post reviews of change management Reporting and statistical data
Change and Corrective Activities Which employees are involved? How to solicit feedback? Face-to-face – don’t get busy and ignore this. People communicate in different ways. How to implement corrective action to ensure adoption? DO involve key stakeholders (not managers – hear organizational leader which could be a receptionist dependent upon the change!) Does a project plan need to be changed and what are the downstream and upstream effects Involve Finance as an integrated partner! Potential exceptions handling Document, document, document Review, review, review, Approve or deny quickly – CCB may not be 100% sure but take the decision Begin recognizing change success Probability, risk, impact of a change to the plan Track all changes to the project or change documents and CCB should review them. Executive team should review them. Report honestly Communicate changes from immediate supervisors and top dog – DON’T make the critical mistake of communicating from a PMO or CCB to staff directly.
Tracking and Reporting Track honestly and completely Don’t know the answer? Say so Isn’t yours to answer? Say so and get it to the right person then FUP to be sure s/he responded Can’t get the data figure out another way or STOP until you decide if the data is necessary Do what you said you would do to be trustworthy Report regularly to meet the business need not to justify your existence. Too much reporting loses its value. Accuracy is key to the project Be prepared for Executive needs Workarounds and defect management (IT or process)
Resistance Management Immediate supervisors, managers, and even the CEO who approved the plan can be resist. Time constraints Money constraints Threat to position, power Change resistance Confusion Keep an eye out and use specific processes and tools to support change team with resistance Signs of resistance: Approvals are sluggish, funding is sluggish, managers don’t want to communicate directly to their staff (leave it to project leader for example) Management training up front to identify, report, and manage resistance
A bell curve similar to new product introduction applies to change management. You will have innovators who accept the change immediately, early adopters, late adopters and laggards. What’s really important is not to let too much time exist between these stages as this could effect acceptance momentum. If you can shift the early adopters closer to innovators you will close the gap (referred to as a chasm) sooner.
Recognition Used both during and after the change Recognize early adoption Recognize small successes Recognize long term changes Recognize adjustments to the change (helps employees see change is monitored for success and keeps them mindful)
Individual and Team Sponsors Vendors Clients
Praise effort and achievement not just achievement Use pre-determined change communications including performance reviews.
Keep awareness among managers of equal contributions from early adopters, early and late majority etc. Tendency to think of early adopters as superstars or the norm (thus judging others poorly) but these are people with different change tolerances. Beware!
After Project Review Formal pre-planned process
For clients, an after project review could be tied to vendor bonuses etc. but only if a non-vendor is on the review team and was on the approval team during the change process (such as CCB primary member).
Process Changes Look back at all those change documents and make sure all documentation is updated, distributed, trained Keep tabs for a specified period of time on processes and change to ensure: All changes complete Changes working as expected Staff are not deploying unapproved workarounds No new resistance observed All workarounds or defects managed or closed
Post Change Review Use standard documents to review and gain feedback from all teams directly or indirectly affected by the change Formal process Report review summary top-down Update the change process for the organization as appropriate Implement any required changes for effectiveness Establish long term reporting and tracking Formally close the project
If you don’t understand the possible effect of change on individuals the change will fail. If you don’t work with employees before and after the change – same result.
WIFM leads everything – what’s in it for me.
Organizational change, combined with massive societal change, has resulted in not only new roles but also an increased number of roles that each person must internalize and act upon (Drucker, 1992).
Social identity theory concentrates on individual roles within a group context so for change, you can generally treat the same group such as Finance, the same way. You can expect similar norm in responses from the group and concerns from the group.
Whereas organizational change includes a typical set of reactions, so do individual reactions.
Individual reactions differ in that an emotional reaction results in a behavioral reaction (such as more sick days) and this drives a reaction within the organization (increased call handle time due to absenteeism, increased human resource costs, etc.)
The change management process must include organizational change features but also identify groups and, reliant upon those groups supervisors, identify individual change plans for each person affected.
Change we are talking about is innovation but in fact any change results in disruption and requires a change or adoption, by others. It may seem that planning takes forever but its critical to project success. Often management gets antsy before reporting and training is complete during the planning process. Schedule the timeline for planning and stick to it. In my experience I’ll be honest, I don’t prefer to let technology drive the planning timeline even if its for an IT project because downstream and indirect change may be missed and, again in my humble experience reporting and training are often skipped over or saved until later, given the “we don’t know what we need yet” statement. Don’t let the CCB or PMO communicate a change projects progress. If an immediate supervisor can’t communicate what is happening then the organizational change structure isn’t working. Be prepared to stick with the time, money, and effort needed to identify, flesh out, and implement a change.
Diffusion of Innovations, by Everett Rogers (1995)
In my experience resistance to change often correlates with the person’s time needed to accept change. A laggard is not “bad” or “undesirable”. They are people who need more to feel comfortable with the change. Sometimes some employees simply will not accept change because of their circumstances; that’s OK. Just help them through transition to their next opportunity and don’t blame them. This could just be the last straw.
Change Management Introduction for New Supervisors
Overview for new
New NormalUpdated July, 2016
This is a quick look at change management for supervisors without
previous experience of formal change management processes.
1. Convince of
2. Build Helpful
3. GetVision Right
5. Authority =
6. Create wins early
8. Sticky LearningCreate Climate
Implement & Sustain
John P. Kotter, 8 Steps for Change
Largely people focused, manages enterprise change such as reorgs, culture shifts,
sweeping process change or M&A. Communicating change reduces resistance
persistence and can result in faster change.
Controls changes to ongoing project(s) ensuring overall program goal attainment.
There may be specific projects under a program.
Controls change integration specifically into different project phases. Usually
includes reporting and control of scope and schedules, cost, quality and risk
Manages desired improvements or changes such as changing priorities, new
product introduction, changes to budgets and resources.
Enhance or correct specific employee behaviors using communication, feedback.
Supervisors commonly use performance or peer reviews as one tool.
These change types work together and can result in lasting, positive change for an organization and its
employees. Supervisors are SO important to a positive outcome!
• Assess Scope and Objectives
• Assess Readiness & Expectations
• Plan Communications
• Establish Sponsorships &Teams
• Train About Change Management
• Plan ChangeTraining Development and Delivery
• Identify Pre and Post-Change Measurements
Yes.We need to
Yay! Someone is
going to fix
I reached 120% of
my goal why
would I want to
to change around
here. I could do
so much more.
I want the organization to
I do not need to change.
• Change & Corrective Activities
• Solicit Feedback throughout change work
• Communicate to staff from Immediate Supervisors
• Tracking and Reporting
• Review and track completely
• Be honest and thorough
• Accuracy is key
• Incorporate a few on-the-fly Executive needs but retain control
• Resistance Management
• Resistance is normal
• Know what to do with persistent resistance
• Communicate through Immediate Supervisors andTop Executives
Change Control Board (CCB) : Committee formed from various business areas with authority/responsibility to control change process.
Project Management Office (PMO): A specific group of people or a vendor who provides oversight and control of a project.
Return to New Normal
• Recognition of Progress and Acceptance
• After Project Review – How was the project run?
• Process Changes – Update procedures, documents, etc.
• Post Change Review – Results
Organizational Change Individual Change
Org + Individual = Best Change
Role Reviews &
Whether or not the organization follows a clear
change management process, Individuals react
when change happens.
Impact can be positive or negative. An organization
and its supervisors can plan to influence the
emotional and behavioral outcome.
• Planning is a Priority – Prepare for
• Combining individual, program,
project, and organizational change
plans can close the shift the
adoption curve bringing about
• Change takes time, money, and
• Innovators and Early Adopters are
different, not better – shape plans
that give all employees
opportunities for success.
(Change Adoption Portion - Everett Rogers, StanfordUniversity (1995).)
Change and Resistance Persistence
In conclusion, change management can be effective with
proper planning, clear objectives, and clear expectations.
Just like anything a business does successfully,
understanding goals, creating the right team, applying
proper controls, and communicating at the right time in the
write way can make the difference.
Supervisors are pivotal players to change management. Be
prepared to give your time to the process if you want to be
successful. Be courageous and voice your ideas and
concerns when you have them. Communicate!
For more information about this presentation, contact:
Cable, D. M. &Welbourne,T. M. (1994). Organizational change and the identity cycle: Understanding the
effect of change on individual attitudes and behaviors through a combined social identity theory/identity theory
Kotter, John P., (2012). Leading Change
Rogers, Everett, (1995). Diffusion of Innovations