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Africa is the 2nd largest continent
in the world. It measures 30, 244,
000 square kilometers wide with
1,032,532,974 people living as of
A large part of continent is made
up of deserts.
A. Sahara – largest desert in the
world; Northern part.
B. Kalahari – Southern part
The scarce rainfall in these areas
bring about the appearance of
spring, which forms an oasis
Mediterranean Africa –
near the region of the
north Sahara with a
climate identical to that
of Southern Europe
Tropical Africa - has
thick jungles, deserts,
and grass lands.
settled on the Nile
Valley during the
around 5000 BC.
believe that the
first people in the
world came from
“Lucy”, one of the
was discovered in
the Great Lift
peoples did not
usually leave a
Village Government – power was shared
among the members of the community,
not a single leader.
Family Patterns – the group was always
more important than the individual.
Religious Beliefs – Early Africans
identified with the forces of nature and
the belief that all living and nonliving
things contained spirits, this is called
Rise of Communities
A. Nok (800BC –
used as art
metal such as
steel, gold and
by the cloth
they wove, for
They lived in
they believe in
Bantus lived in the
Sahara, south of
They spread their
culture and language
They lived by farming
and animal raising.
raised crops while men
Magic was central to
the Bantus’ beliefs.
They also believed that
soul would separate
from the body at the
time of death.
A.Kingdom of Kush (1600BC-300AD)
In 1600BC, the
the Kingdom of
Egypt defeated Kush
in 1525 BC.
Egypt fell in 800-
freedom and elected
a new king in 715BC.
In 671BC, the
Kushites escaped to
In 350 AD, Ezana,
took over the
Kingdom of Kush.
• They have a system of writing and their cities
boasted palaces made of stone.
• it was the first kingdom in Africa to ever have its
own money made of gold, silver, and bronze.
• The Kingdom of Aksum was strong in the
north, of what is now called Ethiopia.
• Its economy was sustained by trade in the Red
• In the 4th century, the Aksum kings converted to
• Trade in Aksum remained strong until the 7th
century, the time when Islam began to spread.
Early Imperial Trade
A Empire of Ghana (5th-11th Century)
The Soninkes benefited from the taxes they imposed on their trade of mines, salt and gold. They controlled this
trade and established a large empire called Ghana.
They also designated the value of gold, and assigned taxes to the salt and gold that were delivered.
Kumbi Saleh (now the modern desert region of Senegal) was the capital of Ghana.
Trade became the center of Soninke culture.
However they rejected the religion of Islam.
B. Empire of Kanem-Bornu (9th-19th
It can be found
around the Chad
Tasted victory in the
17th century, with
eastern Niger, and
was built in the
middle of the 19th
century. Because of
its location, it served
as a trade route from
North Africa, Nile
Valley and sub-
• It is composed of Mandika people.
• The Soso Empire rose, this obliterated many races,
including the Mandinka. Sundiata Kita was the lone
survivor, and when he grew up, he led the
successful Mandinka Revolution against the Soso
• Sundiata converted to Islam. Those who succeeded
him carried the title mansa, meaning “emperor”.
• The most famous emperor of Mali was Mansa
Musa who governed in 1312 AD.
• The first map of Africa was drawn in 1375,
showing Mansa Musa sitting on the thrown with the
title, “Lord of the Negroes”.
Sunni Ali was the leader who
attacked the Mali empire. He was
known for his belief in pagan
gods and magic.
Sunni Ali was When Sunni Ali
dies, he was succeeded by Askia
Mohammed who ruled from
Askia was a devoted Muslim
who tried to unite his territories
under one Muslim empire
through consecutive wars.
It was eventually destroyed from
enemy attacks and from conflicts
from the empire itself.
D. Songhai Empire
Art – closely
passed on from
Arabic was a
Education – in
most societies, it
was the duty of
the elders to
teach boys and
girls their roles
in the village.
to prosper and
develop as a