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Post cold war nationalist and independence movement
End Of Empires
In the 20th
• In the 20th
in Africa, and
• African countries
but have faced many
• Belgian Congo-
– the Belgian Congo gained
independence from Belgium in
– The new country was called
Congo, but it was renamed Zaire
in the 1970s.
– After Congo became
independence, civil war broke
– In 1965, Joseph Mobutu became
a dictator and ruled Zaire until
1997 when was overthrown in the
First Congo War.
– This country is now known as the
Democratic Republic of the
– While a British colony, Ghana
was known as the Gold Coast.
– In 1947, Kwame Nkrumah led
a strike with the hopes of
– In 1957, Great Britain granted
Ghana independence, and
Ghana became the first
African country south of the
Sahara to gain full
independence after World War
– Kwame Nkrumah became the
first president of Ghana and
served until his government
was overthrown in 1966.
– In 1944, the Kenya African
Union was started as a
movement for Kenya to
gain independence form
– Jomo Kennyatta became
the leader of the Kenya
– Kenya achieved
independence in 1963, and
Jomo Kennyatta became
it’s first president.
– Nigeria gained independence from
Great Britain in 1960 but faced
many challenges in uniting it’s
many ethnic groups.
– Within it’s borders, there were
over 250 ethnic groups which
spoke 395 different languages.
– Also, there were large populations
of Christians, Muslims, and
followers of traditional African
– A civil war broke out in 1967 when
the Ibo people created the
Republic of Biafra in the eastern
part of Nigeria.
– The civil war lasted until 1970.
• South Africa and Apartheid-
– A system of racial separation between
blacks and whites called apartheid
existed in South Africa for much of the
– Under the system, a white minority had
more power and rights than those of
the b lack minority.
– A group called the African National
Congress demanded equal rights for
blacks in the 1960’s.
– Nelson Mandela, the leader of the
ANC, was jailed in 1962. He remained
in jail until 1990 when he was released
by South African president F.W. de
– The South African government began
repealing apartheid laws, and it held
it’s first free elections in 1994.
– Nelson Mandela was elected
president in this election and served
One-party rule in Zimbabwe
• Since 1980, Zimbabwe has been
ruled by Robert Mugabe.
• He was first elected as Prime
Minister, but in 1987 he changed
the Constitution to make himself
• Although Mugabe and his party
have won every election since
1980, many people believe that
corruption and voter fraud
occurred during these elections.
• Zimbabwe is currently in an
economic crisis whish is blamed
on the failed policies and
corruption of the Mugabe
• Zimbabwe has a high
unemployment rate and a high
Genocide in Rwanda
• The two main ethnic
groups in Rwanda are the
Hutu and the Tutsi.
• In 1994, tensions
between the two ethnic
groups led to the killing of
between 500,000 and
one million people by the
• Most of the people killed
• Sub Saharan Africa has been hit hard by
the HIV / AIDS epidemic.
• South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and
Namibia are several of the countries that
have high infection rates.
• The average life expectancy in these
countries has declined, and there are
many children who are orphans because
their parents have died from disease.
Pan-Africa Movement and the
• The Pan-African movement sought to
promote unity and cooperation among
• The African Union evolved out of the Pan-
• The African Union was created in 2001and
is the successor of the African Economic
Community (AEC) and the Organization of