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End Of Empires
Nationalist and
Independence Movements
after WWII
In the 20th
Century…
• In the 20th
century,
many independence
movements occurred
in Africa, and
European colonies
dissolve...
Independence
• Belgian Congo-
– the Belgian Congo gained
independence from Belgium in
1960.
– The new country was called
C...
Independence
Ghana-
– While a British colony, Ghana
was known as the Gold Coast.
– In 1947, Kwame Nkrumah led
a strike wit...
Independence
• Kenya-
– In 1944, the Kenya African
Union was started as a
movement for Kenya to
gain independence form
Gre...
Independence
• Nigeria-
– Nigeria gained independence from
Great Britain in 1960 but faced
many challenges in uniting it’s...
Other Issues
• South Africa and Apartheid-
– A system of racial separation between
blacks and whites called apartheid
exis...
One-party rule in Zimbabwe
• Since 1980, Zimbabwe has been
ruled by Robert Mugabe.
• He was first elected as Prime
Ministe...
Genocide in Rwanda
• The two main ethnic
groups in Rwanda are the
Hutu and the Tutsi.
• In 1994, tensions
between the two ...
AIDS
• Sub Saharan Africa has been hit hard by
the HIV / AIDS epidemic.
• South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and
Namibia ar...
Pan-Africa Movement and the
African Union
• The Pan-African movement sought to
promote unity and cooperation among
African...
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Post cold war nationalist and independence movement

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Post cold war nationalist and independence movement

  1. 1. End Of Empires Nationalist and Independence Movements after WWII
  2. 2. In the 20th Century… • In the 20th century, many independence movements occurred in Africa, and European colonies dissolved. • African countries gained independence but have faced many challenges since then.
  3. 3. Independence • Belgian Congo- – the Belgian Congo gained independence from Belgium in 1960. – The new country was called Congo, but it was renamed Zaire in the 1970s. – After Congo became independence, civil war broke out . – In 1965, Joseph Mobutu became a dictator and ruled Zaire until 1997 when was overthrown in the First Congo War. – This country is now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  4. 4. Independence Ghana- – While a British colony, Ghana was known as the Gold Coast. – In 1947, Kwame Nkrumah led a strike with the hopes of gaining independence. – In 1957, Great Britain granted Ghana independence, and Ghana became the first African country south of the Sahara to gain full independence after World War II. – Kwame Nkrumah became the first president of Ghana and served until his government was overthrown in 1966.
  5. 5. Independence • Kenya- – In 1944, the Kenya African Union was started as a movement for Kenya to gain independence form Great Britain. – Jomo Kennyatta became the leader of the Kenya African Union. – Kenya achieved independence in 1963, and Jomo Kennyatta became it’s first president.
  6. 6. Independence • Nigeria- – Nigeria gained independence from Great Britain in 1960 but faced many challenges in uniting it’s many ethnic groups. – Within it’s borders, there were over 250 ethnic groups which spoke 395 different languages. – Also, there were large populations of Christians, Muslims, and followers of traditional African religions. – A civil war broke out in 1967 when the Ibo people created the Republic of Biafra in the eastern part of Nigeria. – The civil war lasted until 1970.
  7. 7. Other Issues • South Africa and Apartheid- – A system of racial separation between blacks and whites called apartheid existed in South Africa for much of the 20th century. – Under the system, a white minority had more power and rights than those of the b lack minority. – A group called the African National Congress demanded equal rights for blacks in the 1960’s. – Nelson Mandela, the leader of the ANC, was jailed in 1962. He remained in jail until 1990 when he was released by South African president F.W. de Klerk. – The South African government began repealing apartheid laws, and it held it’s first free elections in 1994. – Nelson Mandela was elected president in this election and served until 1997.
  8. 8. One-party rule in Zimbabwe • Since 1980, Zimbabwe has been ruled by Robert Mugabe. • He was first elected as Prime Minister, but in 1987 he changed the Constitution to make himself president. • Although Mugabe and his party have won every election since 1980, many people believe that corruption and voter fraud occurred during these elections. • Zimbabwe is currently in an economic crisis whish is blamed on the failed policies and corruption of the Mugabe administration. • Zimbabwe has a high unemployment rate and a high inflation rate.
  9. 9. Genocide in Rwanda • The two main ethnic groups in Rwanda are the Hutu and the Tutsi. • In 1994, tensions between the two ethnic groups led to the killing of between 500,000 and one million people by the Hutus. • Most of the people killed were Tutsis.
  10. 10. AIDS • Sub Saharan Africa has been hit hard by the HIV / AIDS epidemic. • South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia are several of the countries that have high infection rates. • The average life expectancy in these countries has declined, and there are many children who are orphans because their parents have died from disease.
  11. 11. Pan-Africa Movement and the African Union • The Pan-African movement sought to promote unity and cooperation among African countries. • The African Union evolved out of the Pan- African movement. • The African Union was created in 2001and is the successor of the African Economic Community (AEC) and the Organization of African Unity.

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