What is networking ?
Networking is a exchange of information or service among
individuals, groups, or institution.
What is networking devices?
Network devices, or networking hardware, are physical
devices that are required for communication and interaction
between hardware on a computer network.
It is used to connect multiple computer
network devices together.
It is commonly used to connect LAN
It works on physical layer on OSI Model.
HUB contains multiple ports.
• Switches are used join the LAN segments
• A switch is a multiport device that
improves network efficiency.
• It works on data link layer in OSI model.
• A multilayer switch is one that can operate
at both layers.
• They store information about the networks
• It is used to translate from LAN framing to
• This is needed because LANs and WANs use
different network protocols.
• It works on Network layer in OSI model.
• Bridges are used to connect two or more hosts
or network segments together.
• They use hardware Media Access Control
(MAC) addresses for transferring frames.
• It used to connect two physical LANs into a
larger logical LAN.
• It works on Physical and Data Link layers of
the OSI model.
• It is design to connect two different
• A gateway can convert TCP/IP to IPX Vice
• It operates on all 7 layers of the OSI model.
• It is used to covert the analog signals into
• Modems work on both the Physical and
Data Link layers.
• Digital signals are converted by the modem
into analog signals of different frequencies
• A repeater is an electronic device that
amplifies the signal it receives.
• It receives a signal and retransmits it at
• It can cover signals for longer and larger
• Repeaters work on the Physical layer.