WHAT IS A COMPUTER?
• In simple terms, computer is a machine which can be instructed to accept,
process, store and output data.
Input --> Processing --> Output
THE COMPUTER COMPONENTS
The computer is made up of three main components; hardware, software and humanware.
This refers to the computer part that cannot be touched, seen, or moved from one place to
another. There are two type of soft ware
1. Application soft ware
2. System soft ware
APPLICATION SOFTWARE: These are the software that is designed to perform a particular
function. Examples are; Microsoft word, Microsoft excels, opera mini, Corel draw etc.
They are often called productivity programs or end-user programs because they enable the user
to complete tasks, such as creating documents, spreadsheets, databases, doing online research,
sending email, designing graphics, running businesses, and even playing games! Application
software is specific to the task it is designed for.
SYSTEM SOFTWARE: These are the software that control the overall activities of the computer
and control the performance of all the computer part. Without the system software, the
computer will be useless. An example of system software is operating system. The following are
example of operating system;
1. DOS (Disk operating system)
2. Windows operating system. (windows XP, Windows 98, Windows 7, Windows 8,
Windows 8.1, Windows 10 etc.
3. Linux Operating System
HARD WARE: This refers to the computer part that can be touched, seen, or moved from
one place to another. The hardware component can be divided into internal and external
HUMANWARE: The human ware refers to the computer users. Without the human ware,
the computer cannot perform any function.
FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF COMPUTER
An input device accepts data from the outside and convert it to electronic form that
computer understands. Examples are:
1. MOUSE – The mouse is a pointing device attached to the computer that controls the
movement of the cursor on the screen. It allows the user to execute commands using
point & click and click & drag techniques. As the user moves the mouse across the pad,
the cursor moves across the screen.
The mouse should always be used with a mouse pad to provide a smooth surface for
mouse movement and to help keep the mouse from damage. If you "run out of room" on
the pad, simply pick up the mouse and move it to the opposite edge and continue
movement. The PC mouse has two buttons (left and right) and newer mouse have a scroll
wheel between the two. Mouse commands are executed by "clicking". The term ―click‖
refers to the left mouse button.
The phrase to "click" means to select (a screen object) by moving the mouse pointer to
the object's position and clicking a mouse button by pressing it down once, and them
immediately releasing it.
▪ Executing commands (i.e. opening a folder, opening a file, opening a program) requires a
double click, meaning that you must click the left mouse button twice in rapid succession.
There is a timed rhythm to double clicking and the mouse must NOT move between
▪ Shift Click refers to clicking the mouse button while holding the Shift key down.
▪ Click and Drag is also used more generally to refer to any operation in which the left
mouse button is held down while the mouse is moved. Placing the mouse arrow on an
object and holding down the left mouse button while moving it, the object can by moved
to a new location by “dragging”.
▪ Right Click refers to clicking the right mouse button which reveals a context menu,
because it changes based on the status of the item you clicked -- the type of file, for
example. The context menu may display actions such as Open, New, Print, Copy, Paste,
Delete, Send To, Create Shortcut and Properties (to see an item's settings, and so on) all
dependent upon where you right click, on a file or on a blank space in a window.
2. KEYBOARD -- The computer receives most of its input from the user via the keyboard
that is very similar to the typewriter keyboard. There are extra keys on the computer's
keyboard that are not found on a normal typewriter. It is the most widely used input
device. It allows to pass information to the computer, by typing in letters and commands
on the keyboard.
3. TOUCH SCREEN: When it is touched, it senses where is touched, then the user can
touch the exact task on the screen and the computer carries out the process.
4. SCANNER: This is also an input device that is used to scan documents or pictures into
the computer. It converts hardcopy documents to softcopy.
An output device does the opposite of the input device, it converts data from an electronic
form inside the computer to a form that can be accepted outside the computer. Example
1. MONITOR: it is like a television which display visuals on it. But actually they work
differently. It allows us to see the result of the work or command we gave the
computer to perform.
2. PRINTERS: they are very essential part of the computer because they allow to
perform the hard copies of our outputs. I.E. Permanent print out on papers.
3. SPEAKERS: it’s an output device that allows to listen to sounds from the computer.
The memory is used to store data temporarily prior to or during processing. We have two
types of Memory. RAM (Random Access Memory) & ROM (Read Only Memory)
When working on the computer, all work is entered into the computer's memory. In order
to store your work for future retrieval, you must “save” your work to a storage device
before turning the computer off. When your work is saved it creates a computer “file”. The
most common storage devices are hard disks and flash drive. If you only save your work on
the hard disk, you run the risk of losing your data, either through viruses, which attack the
hard disk, or to hard disk failure or crashes. It‘s very important to back up your important
files onto other media, such as flash drive.
The Processor or Central Processing Unit is the “heart” of the computer. It has the
capability to carry out logical and arithmetic instructions, interprets and executes
program instructions, and communicates with the other components of the computer
INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS
MS Windows is a popular operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation. It
replaced the DOS (Disk Operating System) and has Graphic User Interface (GUI) which
makes it attractive and user friendly.
After a successful booting process of a computer, windows Desktop will display
signifying that the system is ready for use. Think of the desktop as your personalized
On the desktop are icons (graphic objects) representing items like programs, files,
folders and so forth. A typical windows desktop has the following features/icons
Taskbar, Start Button, My Computer, My Documents, Recycle Bin.
Start button is a very important windows navigation tool. You can use it to easily
navigate through windows. With the start button, you can do any of the following : Start
a program, open documents, get help or search for items on your computer.
FILE & FOLDER
A file is a program or document stored on a disk. Every file has a name which in most cases
are carefully selected to reflect its content for easy reference.
A folder is a location on a storage medium created for storing files and other folders. A folder
that is inside another folder is called a Sub folder. Folders help in proper organization of files
and easy location of files.
Copying and Moving Files and Folders: when you create files and folders, you may want to
copy or move them to another locations. Copying a file is like creating a backup copy of the
original file. You may copy for one drive to another, from one folder to another and so forth
Deleting files and folders: There might be need to make space in your storage media or get
rid of unwanted files, in which case you have to delete such files. Whenever you delete a file,
it is temporarily moved to a folder called Recycle Bin by the operating system so you can
easily restore it incase you change your mind. However, when you empty the recycle bin, all
the items in it are permanently deleted from your computer.
A shortcut is a pointer to an original item in your computer. It is just like a signboard on the
road pointing a location. Remember, deleting a shortcut does not remover the original item.
Traditionally, a document is defined as an official paper or book that gives information about
something, or that can be used as evidence or proof of something e.g. Legal documents,
travel documents, academic documents, just to mention a few.
Document production therefore refers to the process of manipulating text and relevant
objects to produce documents which can be stored as computer files, printed as hard copies
or sent to recipients via computer networks.
Document production falls under the branch of computer application called Word Processing.
Word processing is the act of creating , editing and formatting text to produce a document
with enhanced readability and communication.
THE VALUES OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT PRODUCTION
Documents can be produced manually and electronically. Manually when using a pen, pencil
to write on a paper or a manual typewriter. Electronic means of document production
involves the use of computer or other ICT devices to create document. Electronic means of
document production using word processors offer a much-improved way of dealing with
1. Electronic documents are more attractive because of the formatting features like fonts,
colors, justifications and margins.
2. Using word processors, one can produce multiple copies of documents with ease using
the printer compared to the limited copies from hand written or manual type writers.
3. Electronic documents can easily be communicated or shared with others via e-mail in
seconds compared to delayed postage services requiring envelopes and stamps.
STEPS IN ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT PRODUCTION
To produce an electronic document, one has to follow the steps given below;
1. Start/Launch the word processor
2. Create the document
3. Edit the document
4. Format the document
5. Save the document
STARTING MICROSOFT WORD
You open Microsoft Word by clicking on the icon on
your desktop (if you have one there) or in the program bar.
The icon for Microsoft Word 2007 looks like this:
*When you click on the icon, a blank document will open. This is a new document for
which the default name is Document1. For each additional new document that you
open, the name increases by one digit: Document2, Document3, etc.
*There are main components of the MS Word window that you need to be aware of before we
even get into features and functions.
*Another component of MS Word is the toolbars. Toolbars appear just at the top of your
page, right below the title bar. Take a look at the following snapshot. You'll see the toolbars
right below the bar that reads "Home Insert Page Layout…" You will use these toolbars to
accomplish specific functions within MS Word. Using the toolbars will make your job quick
As with any software program or web page that you look at, the line allows you to minimize the
page, the box allows you to maximize, and the X closes out the page on your computer. Don't
worry. If you should accidentally click the X, MS Word will prompt you to save the document.
*The toolbars in MS Word 2007 change depending on whether you click Home, Insert,
etc. Above is the toolbar that appears when you click Home. Below is the toolbar you will
see when you click Insert.
*The Microsoft Office button appears on the left in
the picture below. Clicking on it will give you many
of the same options as File did in previous versions
of MS Windows.
You can create a new document, edit an existing
document, save, publish, print, or close.
OPENING A NEW DOCUMENT
Opening a new document can be accomplished two ways. The first way is to click on
the MS Word 2007 icon on your computer. If you already have MS Word open and
wish to start a new document, simply click on the Window Office button and select
'New'. You will be presented with the screen pictured below.
*On the left, you have templates that you may
choose from. If you would select 'Award
Certificates,' you would then see a screen that
would allow you to choose a certificate template
as your new document.
EDITING OF DOCUMENT
Editing of document means making alterations in the contents of a document in order to make
it more palatable and meaningful to the user.
The mouse and the arrow keys play ,major roles in editing of documents. They are used by
users to move the cursor to the point of required correction. While the arrow keys are useful if
the cursor is not far from the point of required correction, the mouse is most suitable where
the cursor is afar.
Word processor editing features include: Insert and Delete, Cut/Copy and Paste, Spelling
checker, grammar checker, Thesaurus, find and replace, undo and Redo.
FORMATTING OF DOCUMENT
After editing, the next step is document formatting. Formatting means enhancing the
appearance of a document to make it more attractive. Documents can be enhanced by
applying the boldface, italics, underline, color, font and margins as necessary, cap dropping.
SAVING THE DOCUMENT
Saving is the process that must be performed to preserve the document for future use. Any
document that is not saved is lost once the word processor is closed or the computer is shut
down, implying that document has to be recreated whenever it is needed.