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Erikson theory

Erik Erikson Theory

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Erikson theory

  1. 1. ERIK ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY (1902-1994) By Sanjeeta Baral
  2. 2. ALittleAbout Erik Erikson ... Erik Homburger Erikson ( 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. MAJOR WORKS :-  Childhood and Society (1950)  Young Man Luther: A Study in Psychoanalysis and History (1958)  Insight and Responsibility (1966)  Identity:Youth and Crisis (1968)  Gandhi'sTruth:On the Origins of Militant Nonviolence (1969)  Life History and the Historical Moment (1975)  Adulthood (edited book, 1978)  Vital Involvement in Old Age (with J. M. Erikson and H. Kivnick, 1986)  The Life CycleCompleted (with J. M. Erikson, 1987)
  3. 3. WHAT IS PSYCHOSOCIALDEVELOPMENT ???  Erikson’s psychosocial development is one of the best known theories of personality in psychology.  psychosocial is relating to the combination of psychological and social behaviour. Psychological + Social [“Psycho” relating to mind, brain and “Social” means external relationship with environment and people live in it ] It means the psychological development of the individual in relation to his or her social environment.
  4. 4. Stages of Psychosocial development :  Erikson’s Theory accounts for development across the life span, from birth to death.  Erikson proposed that we move through a series of 8 psychosocial development stages and each stage is characterised by Developmental Crisis /Identity Crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.  The main focus of this theory is the school years addressed by Stage-3 to stage-5 (age 3 to 19).
  5. 5. Sl. No Stage(Approximate Age) Developmental Crisis Important Events Virtues 1 Infancy (0-1.5 year) TrustVs Mistrust Feeding Hope 2 Early childhood (1.5 -3 years) Autonomy Vs Shame / Doubt ToiletTraining Will Power / Determination 3 Play Age (3-6 years) InitiativeVsGuilt Independence (Exploring) Strength of Purpose 4 School Age (6-12 years) IndustryVs Inferiority School Competence 5 Adolescence (13-19 years) IdentityVs Role Confusion Peer Relationship Fedility 6 Young Adulthood (20-30 years) IntimacyVs Isolation Love Relation ship Love 7 Adulthood (30-60 years) GenerativityVs Stagnation Parenting Care 8 Old Age (Beyond 60s) Ego integrityVs Despair Reflection on and acceptance of one’s life Wisdom
  6. 6. 1. Infancy( 0-1 YEARS ) (Trust Vs Mistrust)  First psychosocial crisis occurs during the first year of life.The crisis is trust vs. mistrust.  During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live.To resolve these feelings of uncertainty, the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care.  The way it is nourished , handled and protected and kept safe & comfortable at this stage may provide the baby with a sense of security or insecurity, a feeling of trust and mistrust in mother or care taker and ultimately in its surrounding.
  7. 7. 2. Early Childhood (2-3 Years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt  The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile, and discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys, etc. Such skills illustrate the child's growing sense of independence and autonomy.  Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure.  Within the bound of safety, he must be provide adequate opportunities for the acquisition of a sense of autonomy and knowledge about his limitation.
  8. 8. 3. PLAY AGE(3-6 Years) Initiative vs. Guilt  During this period the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other children at school. Central to this stage is play, as it provides children with the opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills through initiating activities.  If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability and make decisions.  In case the child is discouraged from taking the initiatives and is pulled down by unhealthy criticism or punishment for minor failure, child is sure to develop a sense of guilt.
  9. 9. 4. SCHOOL AGE (7-12 Years) Industry Vs Inferiority  Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things on their own. Teachers begin to take an important role in the child’s life as they teach the child specific skills.  It is at this stage that the child’s peer group will gain greater significance and will become a major source of the child’s self-esteem. The child now feels the need to win approval by demonstrating specific competencies that are valued by society and begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments.
  10. 10. 5. ADOLESCENCE (13-19 Years) Identity vs role confusion  Adolescents search for a sense of self and personal identity.  The sudden changes in their bodies and minds and the demands of the society compelled them to think and ask questions of themselves like, who am I ?Am i the same person i used to be ?What am i supposed to do and in which manner am i to behave ?
  11. 11. 6.YOUNG Adulthood( 20-30 Years) Intimacy vs isolation  During this period, we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer-term commitments with someone other than a family member. Successful completion of this stage can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of love.
  12. 12. 7. ADULTHOOD (30-60 years) Generativity vs Stagnation  During middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65), we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture.  We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations.  By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of care.
  13. 13. 8.OLD AGE (Beyond 60s) Ego integrity vs Despair  As we grow older (60years and over) and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life.  Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.  Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. Wisdom enables a person to look back on their life with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear.