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1
LINTELS
• Introduction
• Classification of lintels
ARCHES
• Arches : Terms to be used
• Stability of an arch
• Classificat...
Lintels
 Introduction


Classification of lintels

3
Introduction


A lintel is defined as a horizontal structural
member which is placed across the
opening.

4
5
Classification of lintel
Lintels are classified into the following
types, according to the materials of
their construction...
Timber lintels





Easily available in hilly area.
Relatively costly, structurally weak and
valnerable to fire.
Easily...
Stone lintels






Used , where stones
are easily available.
Consists of a simple
stone slab of greater
thickness.
Due...
Stone lintels

9
Brick lintels
BRICK LINTEL






The brick are
hard, well burnt
, first class
bricks .
Suitable for
small span.
The bri...
Reinforced Brick lintels








For large spans and
heavy loads .
They are reinforced
with mild steel bars.
Very comm...
Steel lintels








Provided at large
opening and where
the super-imposed
loads are heavy.
It consists of rolled
ste...
REINFORCED CEMENT
CONCRETE LINTEL








Common in
used.
They may be
pre-cast .
For smaller
span, the precast concret...
14
ARCHES


The structure
constructed of wedge
shaped block of
stones or bricks
,jointed together with
mortar and provided
a...
16
ELEMENTS OF ARCHES

17
TECHNICAL TERMS
The various technical terms used in arches
are as follows:1)Abutment:-This is the end support of an
arches...
3)Intrados :-This is the inner curve or surface
of an arch.
4)Extrados :-This is the outer curve or
surface of the arches....
6)Springing stone:-The springing stone or
springer is the first voussoir at springing
level on either side of the arches.
...
9)Keystone:-This is the highest central wedge
shaped block of an arch.

10)Skew back:-This the surface of the
abutment on ...
11)Span:-This is the clear horizontal distance between
the two supports.
12)Rise:-this is the vertical distance between th...
14)Haunch of an arch:-This is the portion of
arch situated centrally between the key and
skew backs.
15)Spandril:-This is ...




EVERY ELEMENT OF ARCH REMAINS IN
COMPRESSION.
An arches fail due to:1)Crushing of the masonry.
2)Sliding of voussoir...
CRUSHING OF THE MASONARY




If the compressive stress
exceeds the safe crushing strength of
the masonry unit and mortar...
SLIDING OF VOUSSOIRS
To safeguard against sliding of
voussoirs past each other due to
transverse shear ,the voussoirs of
g...
UNEVEN SETTLEMENT OF AN ABUTMENT
OR PIER
Uneven settlement of abutment ,which
causes secondary stresses in arch.
Hence, th...
28
Classification of arches
An arch may be classified
according to their:
1)Material of construction and
workmanship
2)Shape ...
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON
MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP


BRICK ARCHES

*Rough brick arches
*Axed brick arches
*Gauged brick arc...
ROUGH BRICK ARCHES






These arches are built
with ordinary bricks,
which are not in wedge
shape .
Also known as
“REL...
AXED BRICK ARCHES






Bricks are cut to
wedge-shape.
Joints of arches are of
uniform thickness.
Not dress finely so i...
GAUGED BRICK ARCHES





Accurately prepared to wedge shape.
Specially shaped bricks known as
“RUBBER BRICKS” are used ...
RUBBLE ARCHES




Made of rubble stones, which are hammer
dressed, roughly to the shape and size of
voussoirs of the arc...
ASHLAR ARCHES




Stones are cut to
proper shape of
voussoirs and are fully
dressed, properly joint
with cement or lime....
PRECAST CONCRETE BLOCK
ARCHES






Used for small
openings in
building.
The voussoirs, in
the form of
cement concrete
...
MONOLITHIC CONCRETE ARCHES






Constructed from
cast-in-situ concrete
,either plain or
reinforced ,
depending upon th...
Classification according
to shape






Flat arch
Segmental arch
Semi-circular arch
Relieving arch
Dutch or French ar...
FLAT ARCH








Acts like a lintel,
when it provided
over the opening .
Joints radiated to
center.
Used only for lig...
SEGMENTAL ARCH






Segmental in shape
and provided over
the openings .
Joints radiate from a
center of arch, which
li...
SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH




The shape of the curve given to the
arch soffit is semi-circular.
The center of the arch lies on ...
SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH

42
RELIEVING ARCH




When wooden lintel
is provided over the
wider opening, a
brick relieving arch
is constructed
above th...
DUTCH OR FRENCH ARCH




Similar to the flat arch in design, but
differs in shape and method of
construction.
Suitable f...
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON
NUMBER OF CENTRES







One centred arch.
Two centred arch.
Three centred arch.
Four centred...
ONE CENTRED ARCH




Segmental, semi circular, flat arches come
under this category.
Sometime , a perfectly circular arc...
TWO CENTRED ARCH


Pointed, semi-elliptical arches come
under this category.

47
THREE CENTRED ARCH





Elliptical
arches come
under this
category.
O1,O2 and O3
are the center.

O3

O2

O1

48
FOUR CENTRED ARCH


It has four center.



Venetian arch is typical
example of this type.

49
FIVE CENTRED ARCH


This type of arch ,having five centre's
,gives good semi-elliptical shape.

50
reference




BOOKS : -“BUILDING CONSTRUCTION”
by
A.S.Kotadia ( mahajan
publication)
-B.C.POONMIA
INTERNET : - www.googl...
52
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Lintels and arches in construction

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. LINTELS • Introduction • Classification of lintels ARCHES • Arches : Terms to be used • Stability of an arch • Classification of an arches 2
  3. 3. Lintels  Introduction  Classification of lintels 3
  4. 4. Introduction  A lintel is defined as a horizontal structural member which is placed across the opening. 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Classification of lintel Lintels are classified into the following types, according to the materials of their construction:  [1] Timber lintels  [2] Stone lintels  [3] Brick lintels  [4] Reinforced Brick lintels  [5] Steel lintels  [6] Reinforced cement concrete lintels 6
  7. 7. Timber lintels    Easily available in hilly area. Relatively costly, structurally weak and valnerable to fire. Easily decay, if not properly taken care. TIMBER LINTEL 7
  8. 8. Stone lintels    Used , where stones are easily available. Consists of a simple stone slab of greater thickness. Due to high cost and its inability to with stand the transverse stress load. STONE LINTEL 8
  9. 9. Stone lintels 9
  10. 10. Brick lintels BRICK LINTEL    The brick are hard, well burnt , first class bricks . Suitable for small span. The bricks having frogs are more suitable. 10
  11. 11. Reinforced Brick lintels     For large spans and heavy loads . They are reinforced with mild steel bars. Very common due to durability, strength and fire resisting properties. Joints are filled with cement concrete. 11
  12. 12. Steel lintels     Provided at large opening and where the super-imposed loads are heavy. It consists of rolled steel joists . Either used singly or in combination of two or three units. Joint with bolts. ROLLED STEEL JOIST 12
  13. 13. REINFORCED CEMENT CONCRETE LINTEL     Common in used. They may be pre-cast . For smaller span, the precast concrete lintels are used. Depth of lintel depend on R.C.C. LINTEL 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. ARCHES  The structure constructed of wedge shaped block of stones or bricks ,jointed together with mortar and provided across the opening to carry the weight of the structure above the opening. 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. ELEMENTS OF ARCHES 17
  18. 18. TECHNICAL TERMS The various technical terms used in arches are as follows:1)Abutment:-This is the end support of an arches. 2)Pier:-This is support an intermediate of an arch. 18
  19. 19. 3)Intrados :-This is the inner curve or surface of an arch. 4)Extrados :-This is the outer curve or surface of the arches. 5)Voussoirs :-The voussoirs or arch stones are the wedge shaped units forming the arch. 19
  20. 20. 6)Springing stone:-The springing stone or springer is the first voussoir at springing level on either side of the arches. 7)Springing line:-This is an imaginary line joining the two springing points. 8)Crown:-This is the highest point of extrados or it is the highest part of an arches. 20
  21. 21. 9)Keystone:-This is the highest central wedge shaped block of an arch. 10)Skew back:-This the surface of the abutment on which the arch rests. 21
  22. 22. 11)Span:-This is the clear horizontal distance between the two supports. 12)Rise:-this is the vertical distance between the two supports. 13)Depth of arch:-This is the perpendicular distance 22
  23. 23. 14)Haunch of an arch:-This is the portion of arch situated centrally between the key and skew backs. 15)Spandril:-This is the triangular walling enclosed by the extrados of the arch, a horizontal line from the crown of the arch and perpendicular line from the springing of the outer curves. 23
  24. 24.   EVERY ELEMENT OF ARCH REMAINS IN COMPRESSION. An arches fail due to:1)Crushing of the masonry. 2)Sliding of voussoirs. 3)Rotation of some joints about an edge. 4)Uneven settlement of an abutment or pier. 24
  25. 25. CRUSHING OF THE MASONARY   If the compressive stress exceeds the safe crushing strength of the masonry unit and mortar , the arch will fail in crushing. The material should be of adequate strength and size of voussoirs and should be properly designed to bear the thrust transmitted through them. 25
  26. 26. SLIDING OF VOUSSOIRS To safeguard against sliding of voussoirs past each other due to transverse shear ,the voussoirs of greater height should be provided. ROTATION OF SOME JOINT ABOUT AN EDGE Rotation can be prevented ,if the line of resistance is kept within intrados and extrados. Also, the line of thrust should be made to cross the joint away from the edge to prevent the crushing of that edge. 26
  27. 27. UNEVEN SETTLEMENT OF AN ABUTMENT OR PIER Uneven settlement of abutment ,which causes secondary stresses in arch. Hence, the abutment which has ultimately to bear all the load transferred to the arch , should be strong enough. Also, the arch should be symmetrical , so that unequal settlements of the two abutment is minimised. 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. Classification of arches An arch may be classified according to their: 1)Material of construction and workmanship 2)Shape of curve formed by their soffit or intrados 3)Number of centers. 29
  30. 30. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP  BRICK ARCHES *Rough brick arches *Axed brick arches *Gauged brick arches  STONE ARCHES *Rubble arches *Ashlar arches  GAUGED ARCHES *Precast concrete block arches *Monolithic concrete arches 30
  31. 31. ROUGH BRICK ARCHES    These arches are built with ordinary bricks, which are not in wedge shape . Also known as “RELIEVING ARCHES”. Made up of rectangular brick that are not cut into wedge shape. Curvature are obtained by mortar. 31
  32. 32. AXED BRICK ARCHES    Bricks are cut to wedge-shape. Joints of arches are of uniform thickness. Not dress finely so it does not give much attractive appearance. 32
  33. 33. GAUGED BRICK ARCHES    Accurately prepared to wedge shape. Specially shaped bricks known as “RUBBER BRICKS” are used . The lime putty is used for binding the blocks. 33
  34. 34. RUBBLE ARCHES   Made of rubble stones, which are hammer dressed, roughly to the shape and size of voussoirs of the arch and fixed in cement mortar. These arches are used for small span upto 1 m. 34
  35. 35. ASHLAR ARCHES   Stones are cut to proper shape of voussoirs and are fully dressed, properly joint with cement or lime. The voussoirs made of full thickness of the arch. 35
  36. 36. PRECAST CONCRETE BLOCK ARCHES    Used for small openings in building. The voussoirs, in the form of cement concrete blocks are prepared in special moulds . Generally , the concrete blocks are used without reinforcement. 36
  37. 37. MONOLITHIC CONCRETE ARCHES    Constructed from cast-in-situ concrete ,either plain or reinforced , depending upon the span and magnitude of loading. Quit suitable for larger span (3.0 m). The curing is done 2 to 4 weeks. 37
  38. 38. Classification according to shape      Flat arch Segmental arch Semi-circular arch Relieving arch Dutch or French arch 38
  39. 39. FLAT ARCH     Acts like a lintel, when it provided over the opening . Joints radiated to center. Used only for light loads only. Span up to 1.50 m. 39
  40. 40. SEGMENTAL ARCH    Segmental in shape and provided over the openings . Joints radiate from a center of arch, which lies below the springing line. Provided over lintel. 40
  41. 41. SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH   The shape of the curve given to the arch soffit is semi-circular. The center of the arch lies on the springing line. 41
  42. 42. SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH 42
  43. 43. RELIEVING ARCH   When wooden lintel is provided over the wider opening, a brick relieving arch is constructed above the lintel. Relieving the load of masonry over lintel. 43
  44. 44. DUTCH OR FRENCH ARCH   Similar to the flat arch in design, but differs in shape and method of construction. Suitable for small opening. 44
  45. 45. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON NUMBER OF CENTRES      One centred arch. Two centred arch. Three centred arch. Four centred arch. Five centred arch. 45
  46. 46. ONE CENTRED ARCH   Segmental, semi circular, flat arches come under this category. Sometime , a perfectly circular arch known as bull’s eye arch ,provided for circular window. 46
  47. 47. TWO CENTRED ARCH  Pointed, semi-elliptical arches come under this category. 47
  48. 48. THREE CENTRED ARCH   Elliptical arches come under this category. O1,O2 and O3 are the center. O3 O2 O1 48
  49. 49. FOUR CENTRED ARCH  It has four center.  Venetian arch is typical example of this type. 49
  50. 50. FIVE CENTRED ARCH  This type of arch ,having five centre's ,gives good semi-elliptical shape. 50
  51. 51. reference   BOOKS : -“BUILDING CONSTRUCTION” by A.S.Kotadia ( mahajan publication) -B.C.POONMIA INTERNET : - www.google.com 51
  52. 52. 52

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