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Animal kingdom

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Animal kingdom

  2. 2. Animals are multicellular organisms that feed on other organisms have a nervous system usually move around can be divided into: 1) INVERTEBRATES (have no backbone) 2) VERTEBRATES (have a backbone)
  3. 3. The invertebrate phyla:1. Cnidaria (Coelenterata)2. Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)3. Nematodes (Roundworms)4. Annelids (Segmented worms)5. Molluscs6. Arthropods
  4. 4. 1) CNIDARIA or (COELENTERATA) simple sac-like body with a single opening surrounded by tentacles armed with stinging cells mouth/anus tentacle
  5. 5. CNIDARIA or (COELENTERATA) sea coralanemone jelly fish hydra
  6. 6. 2) FLATWORMS (PLATYHELMINTHES) body is elongated and flatTapeworm inside Tapeworm head with intestines. hooks & suckers.
  7. 7. 3) NEMATODES (ROUNDWORMS) have a long thread-like body, round in cross-section some live in the soil, but many Nematode in soil. are plant or animal parasites Nematodes damageNematodes inside a root. potatoes.
  8. 8.  e.g. Ascaris & pin worms (live in human gut) Ascaris: 25-40 cm long.Ascaris block intestines. Pin worms
  9. 9. 4) ANNELIDS (segmented worms) long body divided by rings into a series of segments have a digestive tract with a mouth and anus earthworm leech ragworm
  10. 10.  move by bristles ragworm
  11. 11. 5) MOLLUSCS body soft and unsegmented, usually covered by a shell most have:  an external (e.g. snail, mussels) or  internal shell (squid) live in aquatic or moist environment
  12. 12. slugsnail octopus clam squid cuttlefish
  13. 13. 6) ARTHROPODS segmented animals with a hard exoskeleton that is shed and replaced by a new one when animal needs to grow moulting is the shedding of the exoskeleton
  14. 14. A new dragonfly emerged from exoskeleton
  15. 15. By grabbing onto its exoskeleton, it pulls the rest of its abdomen out
  16. 16. A new dragonfly. Totally free from its exoskeleton
  17. 17. It begins to expand its wings, abdomen and eyes
  18. 18. New mature dragonfly
  19. 19. ARTHROPODS have jointed limbs (legs) flea
  20. 20. ARTHROPODS four classes:- 1. Crustaceans 2. Arachnids 3. Insects 4. Myriapods
  21. 21. a) Crustaceans 4 antennae 2 compound eyes many pairs of legs crab lobster shrimp
  22. 22. b) Arachnids no antennae no compound eyes 2 body parts 8 limbs Six simple eyes e.g. spiders harvestman scorpion
  23. 23. c) Insects 2 antennae 2 compound eyes 3 body parts 6 legs e.g. butterfly, moth, flea Vision through a compound eye.
  24. 24. d) Myriapods 2 antennae many legs millipede centipede
  25. 25. Characteristics of insects1. Body consists of three parts – head, thorax and abdomen.2. Six limbs are attached to the thorax.
  26. 26. 3. One pair of antennae.4. One pair of compound eyes.5. Typically two pairs of wings.6. Abdomen has nothing attached to it.
  27. 27. 7. Spiracles on the thorax and abdomen.
  28. 28. 7. Spiracles on the thorax and abdomen. Spiracle leads to the spiracle tracheal system.
  29. 29. Functions of the exoskeleton1. It is hard and so protects the insect from damage attack of microbes.
  30. 30. Functions of the exoskeleton2. It is covered by a waxy layer and so makes the insect waterproof. Thus insects can live in dry places.3. It provides a place where muscles can be attached.
  31. 31. Development of insects Metamorphosis:  is when an animal changes its form  TWO types of metamorphosis in insects: Complete metamorphosis : 4 stages Incomplete metamorphosis : 3 stages
  32. 32. Complete metamorphosis is when : an insect undergoes a complete change FOUR stages in life cycle: larva larva pupa e.g. housefly mosquito egg adult butterfly
  33. 33. The larva & adult feed on different types offood. How is this an advantage to the insect? Adult feeds on nectar. Larva eats grass. Avoid intraspecific competition. Occupy different niches.
  34. 34. Incomplete metamorphosis is when: the insect develops gradually THREE stages in life cycle: e.g. grasshopper beetles adult egg ladybirds nymphsInstars:stages between moults
  35. 35. A nymph looks exactly like an adult but has no wings nymphsadult
  36. 36. Why do you think that nymphs & adults compete with each other? Feed on the same type of food and occupy the same niche. Grasshopper nymphs.Both have biting mouthparts.
  37. 37. Ecdysis or Moulting is the removal of the exoskeleton from time to time happens to let the insect to grow happens in the:  larva  nymph stage BUT not in the adult
  38. 38. The Vertebrates have: a vertebral column extending to form a tail an internal skeleton, usually made of bone five classes: 1. Fish 2. Amphibians A shift from 3. Reptiles an aquatic to 4. Birds a terrestrial 5. Mammals habitat.
  39. 39. FISH e.g. trout, carp, salmon
  40. 40. FISH breathe by gills move by fins & tail Gills Streamlined body – to reduce friction.
  41. 41. Scales cover body is covered by scales body. skeleton is made of: bone or cartilage [e.g. ray] ray
  42. 42. Learn to draw: A FISH
  43. 43. AMPHIBIANS toadfrog newt salamander
  44. 44. AMPHIBIANS semi-terrestrial, eggs are laid in water have a damp skin through which they can breathe lungs are small and inefficient
  45. 45. Question: MAY, 2011Give a biological explanation for each of thefollowing statements.Frogs have a moist skin. (5)
  46. 46. REPTILES terrestrial ( live on land) eggs:  laid on land  are protected by a soft shell have a dry, waterproof, scaly skin e.g. lizard, crocodile, turtle, snake
  47. 47. BIRDS feathers cover the body eggs have a hard shell have wings to fly a toothless beak to feed
  48. 48. BIRDS Sparrow
  49. 49. Question: SEP, 2004Give biological explanations for each of thestatements:Birds have hollow bones. (2)To be light and so can fly.
  50. 50. Question: MAY, 2009Give the biological explanation of each of thefollowing statements. Birds are well adapted to move through the air. (5)
  51. 51. Question: MAY, 2009 1. Have wings to fly. 2. Skeleton is lightweight due to hollow bones. 3. Have a beak instead of teeth to be lightweight. 4. Feathers cover the streamlined body to reduce air resistance. 5. Tail helps to steer and brake.
  52. 52. Question: SEP, 2012Hawks are bird species commonlyfound in desert biomes. Explain whysome of the largest feathers areattached to the wing. (2)Large feathers are needed toprovide a large surface area toflap the wings to provide lift.
  53. 53. MAMMALS have hair young ones:  usually develop inside the mother
  54. 54.  are fed on milk produced by the mammary glands
  55. 55. MAMMALS have: sweat glands whiskers an outer ear a diaphragm
  56. 56. Three subgroups of mammals:-1. Egg-laying mammals platypus spiny ant-eater
  57. 57. 2. Pouch mammals (marsupials) Young kangaroo suckling milk.
  58. 58. 3. Placental mammals e.g. humans, monkey
  59. 59. The vertebrate classes can be:-1. POIKILOTHERMIC (cold-blooded) - cannot regulate their body temperature - fish, reptiles & amphibians2. HOMEOTHERMIC (warm-blooded) - can regulate their body temperature - birds & mammals [NEVER USE cold and warm blooded in your answers].
  60. 60. Which animal is the homeotherm? Mouse
  61. 61. Fish, reptiles & amphibians are: get heat from their surroundings Convection Radiation Conduction
  62. 62. Birds & mammals are: get heat from inside their body by:  respiration  muscle contraction
  63. 63. Question: MAY, 2010Which property of birdsallows them to incubate eggs? (2) Have feathers that makes them keep a constant body temperature. They are homeothermic.
  64. 64. Advantages of being endotherms:animal is active all the time and all year round:  so can escape predators  search for food more efficientlyimmune system works well
  65. 65. Question: SEP, 2006Give ONE structural difference to distinguishbetween:a) an insect and an arachnid (1)Insect: 3 body parts/ 6 legs/ compound eyesArachnid: 2 body parts/ 8 legs / no compound eyesb) a fish and a reptile (1)Fish: moves by fins / has gills to breatheReptile: moves by legs / lungs to breathe
  66. 66. Question: SEP, 2007Give THREE characteristics of EACH of thefollowing groups of organisms:a) annelids; (3)  long body divided by rings into a series of segments  have a digestive tract with a mouth and anus  move by bristles
  67. 67. Question: SEP, 2007Give THREE characteristics of EACH of thefollowing groups of organisms:b) arthropods. (3)  segmented animals  body is covered by an exoskeleton which is shed by moulting  have jointed limbs
  68. 68. THE END