7. Persons who act as catalysts and assume the
responsibility for managing change activities.
8. Resistance to change is the action taken by
individuals and groups when they perceive that a
change that is occurring as a threat to them.
Key words here are 'perceive' and 'threat'. The
threat need not be real or large for resistance to
9. • Overt and Immediate
Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions
• Implicit and Deferred
Loss of employee loyalty and motivation,
increased errors or mistakes, increased
13. Education and communication
- Show those effected the logic behind the
- Participation in the decision process lessens
Building Support and commitment
- Counseling, therapy, or new skills training.
Implementing Change Fairly
- Be consistent and procedurally fair.
14. Manipulation and Cooptation
- ‘’Spinning’’ the message to gain.
Selecting people who accept
- Hire people who enjoy change in the first place.
- Direct threats and force.
15. The Politics of Change
Impetus for change is likely to come from outside
change agents, new employees, or managers
outside the main power structure.
Internal change agents are most threatened
By their loss of status in the organization.
16. Long-time power holders tend to implement
incremental but not radical change.
The outcomes of power struggles in the
organization will determine the speed and quality
17. There are four main approaches to managing
the organizational change….
1. Lewin’s classic three step model
2. Kotter’s eight step plan
3. Action Research
4. Organizational development
20. Forces that hinder
movement from the
Forces that direct
from the status
21. 1. Create urgency
2. Form a powerful coalition
3. Create a vision for change
4. Communicate the vision…
5. Remove Obstacles.
6. Create short term Wins.
7. Build on the change.
8. Anchor the changes in corporate culture.
22. A change process based on systematic
collection of data and then selection of a
change action based on what the analyzed
25. These are the underlying values in most OD
Respect for people
Trust and support
Power and equalization
26. Six techniques are used in
I. Sensitivity training
II. Survey Feedback
III. Process consultation
IV. Team building
V. Intergroup development
VI. Appreciative inqurey
27. Ability of an organization to embrace change, new
Two ways of creating a culture for change:
1: Stimulating a Culture of Innovation
2: Creating a Learning Organization
28. There are different factors that stimulate a
culture of innovation like:
29. Sources Of Innovation
Long Tenure in Management
Slack of Resources
30. Individuals who take an innovation and
actively promote the ideas overcome
resistance , and ensure that the idea is
32. A process of correcting errors using past
routines and present policies.
34. Establishing Strategy
Redesign the organization’s structure
› Flatten structure and increase cross functional
Reshaping the org’s culture
› Reward risk-taking and intelligent mistakes
35. Work Stress and Its Management:
What is Stress?
An unpleasant psychological process that
occurs in response to environmental
36. Challenge Stressors:
o Stress associated with workload, pressure to
complete tasks, and time urgency
o stress that keeps you from
reaching your goals such as
37. Demand-Resources Model of Stress
Responsibilities, pressures, obligations, and
uncertainties in the workplace
Things within an individual’s control that can be
used to resolve demand
39. Potential sources of stress
There are three potential stressors which are
as follows :-