WHAT IS NATIONALISM
Nationalism is a feeling of belonging and loyalty that causes people think of
themselves as a Nation.
During 19th & 20th centuries Nationalism was a powerful force that could
One Nation from many separate countries
(Ex. Italy & Germany)
Break one nation up into many countries
(Ex. Austria- Hungary and Turkey )
THE UPPER CLASS :
• The landed aristocracy were the dominant group.
• They had common interest and lifestyle. Owned large country estates and
• Most of them spoke french
LOWER CLASS :
• Majority of the people were peasants.
• Most were landless and worked as serfs.
French Revolution & The Idea of the Nation
French revolution started in 1789.
France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under rule of a monarch.
Political and constitutional changes that came in wake of the French revolution led to the
transfer of sovereignty from monarchy to a body of French citizens.
Various practices adopted to develop a sense of collective identity among people.
Declaration of mission to liberate Europe from despotism.
Setting up of Jacobin clubs by educated middle classes and students of Europe
It also powered revolution in all Europe.
Idea of La Patrie (the fatherland) Le Citoyen (the citizen)were emphasized.
Adoption of new constitution with citizens enjoying equal rights.
Adopted tri color as new French flag replacing royal standards.
New hymns were composed oaths were taken & martyrs remembered in the name of
Uniform system of weights & measures were adopted.
Centralized administrative system was formulized.
French become the national language and regional dialects were discouraged.
Imaginary female allegories were used to show united nation. Such as : Marianna
THE IDEA OF THE NATIONALISM
NEPOLEONIC CODE / COVIL CODE OF 1804
Privileges based on birth abolished and equality before law was established.
Right to property was established and feudal system was abolished.
Administrative divisions were simplified.
Peasants got freedom from serfdom and manorial dues.
Uniform laws and standardization of weight and measures were introduced.
Common national currency was adopted.
Guild restriction in towns was removed and transport and communication system improved.
THE MAKING OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
Till mid 18th century there was no concept of “Nation State” in Europe.
Society and politics was dominated aristocracy.
To the west, the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and
Central Europe by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.
Emergence of working and middle classes due to industrialization in 19th cent.
Educated , liberal middle classes popularized abolition of Aristocratic Privileges.
• Government by consent
• End of Autocracy
• Adoption of constitution
• Abolition of property rights.
• Equality before law
• Representative Government through
• Freedom for market.
• Removal of state imposed restrictions
on movement of goods and capital.
• In 1834, a customs union Zollverein was
• The union abolished tariff barriers and
reduced the number of currencies from
over thirty to two.
IN POLITICAL SPHERE IN ECONOMIC SPHERE
New Conservatism After 1815
After defeat of Napoleon European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism.
Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria drew the “Treaty of Vienna” in 1815.
Main Motive was to undo the changes initiated by Napoleon and to restore Monarchy.
OF Treaty of
6. No change in German
confederation of 39 states.
7. Russia to get Polaand
5. Prussia as
territories on its
Expansion in Future
4. Austria to control
1.Restoration of Bourbon
2.Territories acquired by
Napoleon taken back
Establishment of Secret Societies to spread the Ideas of nationalism and
Mazzini viewed “ Nation States” to be necessary and opposed Monarchy.
Inspired other secret societies in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
Giuseppe Mazzini joined one such society at Carbonan.
Later, he established two more Secret societies “Young Italy” in Marseilles,
and then, “Young Europe” in Berne.
Conservative frightened by his move.
Division of Age of Revolution
1848: The Revolution
of the Liberals
Age of Revolution-1830-1848
( can be divided under three stages)
The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling
Use of culture to create idea of a Nation.
Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science.
Focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
Used Art Poetry Stories & Music to shape nationalists feelings.
Collected Folklores to spread Nationalism even among illiterates.
Language also played a vital role for e.g. The use of Polish language in Poland came
to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
HUNGER, HARDSHIP AND REVOLT
The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.
The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
Large Scale rural migration to cities led to overcrowded cities and reduced Jobs
Stiff competition between hand made goods and cheap machine made goods
Peasants burdened with feudal dues as in rural areas aristocracy was still enjoying the power.
The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and
Peasants and weavers revolted and Louis Philippe was forced to flee.
The Revolution of the Liberals- 1848
French Monarchy uprooted by revolt of 1848 & a Republic had been proclaimed.
Demand of liberal middle classes for constitutionalism with National Unification.
In Germany Professionals businessmen, Artisans decided to vote for all German National assembly.
Frankfurt Parliament organized in Church of St. Paul. constitution was drafted for a German nation to be
headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament ,
Offered the crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia. He rejected joined other monarchs to oppose the
Social base of parliament shifted to middle class dominance.
Lost the support of workers and artisans.
Political associations were formed by women for Political Rights.
Conservative forces suppressed liberals .
Fearing future revolutions Monarchs introduced changes .
Serfdom and bonded labour abolished.
The Making Of Germany
In may 1848 the liberal attempt to set up a constitutional monarchy at
Frankfurt was suppressed by the monarchy military and Junkers.
After the failure of the German National Assembly , Prussian Chief Minister
Otto von Bismarck took the lead in German Unification
Three Wars for 7 years with Austria, Denmark and France completed German
Prussian King Kaiser William –I become the emperor of United Germany .
Currency Banking and Judicial System was legalized
Unification of Italy
Italy was divided in 7 states of which only one, Sardinia - Piedmont was ruled by an Italian dynasty.
Ideas of Italian unification first given by Giuseppe Mazzini through his Secret Society called Young
After his failed revolutions in 1831 and 1848 , the lead was taken by the King of Sardinia , Victor
Chief Minister of Sardinia, Count Cavour led the unification process by diplomatic alliance with
France to defeat Austria and unify its northern territories.
In the southern part, Giuseppe Garibaldi led the movement by involving local peasant support to
drive out the Spanish rulers.
Thus the process of unification was completed with the crowning of Victor Emmanuel-II as king of
Italy in 1861.
The Strange Case of Britain
No British nation existed before 18th century.
Ethnic groups like English, Welsh, Scots, inhabited British Isle having their own cultural & Political
Growth of English Nations wealth and Power, English parliament seized monarchy in 1688.
Act Of Union-1707 between England and Scotland formed United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Systematic suppression of Scottish Culture, Language by English began. Many were drive out
of their homeland.
British helped Protestants against Catholics of Ireland.
Later Catholic Revolt as suppressed.
In 1801 Ireland was also incorporated forcibly into United Kingdom.
Nations began to be portrayed as female figures called
Ideas like Liberty ,Justice, and Republic too were personified as
Allegories were erected at squares to mark national Unity.
Coins and Stamps too carried their images.
Marianne represented Republic of France and Germania
portrayed German Nation
Nationalism and Imperialism: Balkan Issue
Balkans become the source of Nationalist
Tension in Europe after 1871
it was too a region of geographical & ethnic
Inhabited by slaves & was under control of
Ideas of nationalism swept over entire
One by one different Nationalities declared
their independence through struggle.
It became an area of conflict among its Nationalities and later became one of the causes
of First World War .
Each state develop jealously & hope to expand at the cost of others.
European power further complicated the situation .
They were struggling to prove their trade & military might over the others.
Countries like Russia , Germany, England, Austria- Hungary, extended their control over