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  1. ARGUMENT Impact of Tangible things (solid or permanent) on intangible open space activity (voids or temporary) is continuously changing through human pattern. SIDDHI V. KANKARIYA M.ARCH (SEM 1) T.M.U.D.
  2. ABSTRACT: This article proposes a new theoretical perspective for understanding urban spaces and their interrelations. Each urban space has an “identity,” defined by its specific mixture of groups and its specific real and sensual qualities. These qualities construct a sensual object with a specific sensual identity within the web of different urban spaces. Therefore, urban spaces are being made through multiple interrelations and are constituted through their location. The movement pattern of human and activity around space is totally depend upon any built structure in urban area. BACKGROUND (THEORIZERS OR IDEOLOGIES): 1 st Theory – Figure and Ground Theory by Trancik Roger. A figure-ground diagram is a mapping technique used to illustrate the relationship between built and unbuilt space in cities. Land coverage of buildings is visualized as solid mass (figure), while public spaces formed by streets, parks and plazas are represented as voids (ground). 2 nd Theory – Social Life of Small Urban Spaces by William Whyte. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces by Whyte is a concise, observational study of people's relationship with spaces and how it can change (for better or for worse) when the space itself is altered. SCOPE & LIMITATIONS: The scope of the study is extended to specific elements of this two theories. i.e. ‘Figure and ground theory’ and ‘Social life of small urban spaces’. The area where the study was conducted is one part of the city ‘Aurangabad’ The comparison of this data will be different with any other urban space because of the human behaviour with built and unbuilt space in urban context. METHODOLOGY: Time-lapse, on site survey, photography, interviews, and direct observation of users, Mapping of existing tangible and intangible scenario, Tangible activity through maps and intangible activity through pictograms and pie diagram. Direct observation was the most fruitful technique. KEYWORDS: Tangible, Intangible, Solid, Voids, Open spaces, Human Pattern.
  3. DISCUSSION/ DETAIL ARGUMENT: For any given building, the space enclosed by the built mass is what generally defines its respective function and form. However, an antithesis of these occupied spaces is unbuilt spaces, or voids in a given built fabric. In a very superfluous manner of speaking, unbuilt spaces are what remain when built spaces are discounted from a given built form. These unbuilt spaces have varying configurations, degree of enclosure as well as function, and work in harmony with the built spaces. They act as determinants of form, functional buffers, multifunctional areas (supplementing the designated function of the built environment that they are a part of), as well as climatic aids. Fig 1. In an isolated environment, perception of the built form changes with change in the enveloping space, or unbuilt form, in the given environment Unbuilt spaces have long come to associate themselves with the quality of the spatial organization and distribution of settlements, as well as the ‘feel’ of these spaces. In the context of modern urban design, open spaces may be defined as parts of a settlement where myriad groups, personalities, events and activities intermingle to recreate all the complexities of human lives. These are spaces which acquire their identity through human activity. Unbuilt spaces, despite their intangibility, can be characterised by their relationship with the built mass in the given built environment. Like built spaces, unbuilt spaces are also characterized by the parameters of evaluating tangible spatial relationships, and hence can be studies antithetically as well as objectively.
  4. SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS- Unbuilt spaces, despite their intangibility, can be characterised by their relationship with the built mass in the given built environment. Like built spaces, unbuilt spaces are also characterized by the parameters of evaluating tangible spatial relationships, and hence can be studies antithetically as well as objectively. A. Masses and voids Space can be either full or empty. A void is an empty volume, while a mass is a filled volume. Voids occur in conjunction with masses – they can either be geometrical, or organic. Unbuilt spaces formed by the creation of geometric forms and shapes can be considered as geometric voids. These play a very important role in the final composition, because geometric forms have sharp outlines and adjust themselves in the space articulation. To counterbalance the dynamic interplays of form and space, voids become significantly important. On the other hand, organic voids are generated by the creation of organic shapes and forms, and they together behave like hands in gloves, where the forms are the hands and the voids are the gloves. Created by smooth, flowing forms and shapes, organic voids are also free flowing and gentle. Fig 2. Masses and voids enclosed by them. Left – Geometric void Right – Organic void B. Scale and Proportion The scale of an open space affects the perception of built mass in its vicinity. Scale and proportion are characteristics of any given space, relevant through its size. While scale relates to the user, proportion relates to the form’s position within and relation with the environment in which it’s placed The same is true for unbuilt spaces – they are in a constant interaction with the built forms, and hence their scale and proportion is affected by their own configuration and the degree of enclosure accorded to them by their surroundings.
  5. Fig 3. Proportion of built mass to unbuilt space changes the perception of both, despite the configuration of built space remaining constant. Fig 4. Perception of built space changes in respect with vantage point, which is determined by size of unbuilt space. Built spaces appear bigger and more dominating when unbuilt spaces diminish. C. Degree of Enclosure The degree of enclosure of a space can be defined as the extent to which a space can be isolated. 6 A fully enclosed space creates a cohesive, isolate space, whereas a low degree of enclosure creates a space which is loosely bound and has a fluid configuration. Degree of enclosure affects the scale of a space, and in turn is affected by the permeability of a space, and dictates user preference and comfort in the space. It also affects circulation hierarchy by creating variations in the intimacy gradient for any given area. Fig 5. Width of unbuilt space determines scale of built environment and degree of enclosure accorded by each case.
  6. D. Degree of Permeability The degree of permeability of a space can be defined physically as well as visually, and is characterized by the nature of openings as well as visual character of the surrounding build mass. It correlates directly with the access and connectivity of a given space. In case of open unbuilt spaces, plant forms and landforms also affect the degree of permeability of a given space. E. Spatial Organization The arrangement of various elements in respect with one another in a given plane is Spatial Organization. The organization of spaces, both built and unbuilt, shapes the experience of the user in that by affecting the enclosure and permeability of the space. Spatial organization lends legibility to a space and affects the path finding patterns of the user. It also affects the social and visual hierarchy of a built environment by providing clear visual cues and axes, along which users align themselves. Fig 6. Organization of space as per the principles introduced by Francis D. K. Ching. The above diagrams focus on the distribution of unbuilt spaces, and their organization with respect to the built form.
  7. OBSERVATIONS OF CASE STUDY: Figure and ground map with land use of building is performing as a base map of selected site When human activity and connectivity of structure involve in unbuilt spaces there is different human pattern formed. This patterns are depend on the special quality and behaviour of spaces. This patterns of humans are not fixed. Its keep in changing with the change in use of tangible spaces. As we seen the solid spaces of figure and ground map are permanent and void spaces are temporary. But the impact and influence of solid mass on voids is changing day by day. Fig 7. Study of Human pattern from central landmark Gajanan Maharaj Mandir to surrounding area
  8. CONCLUSION: 1. Urban space should have unity which may be expressed in different ways such as: Through Form Through Material Through Theory Through Landscaping Through Axis Through Architecture 2. There should be a proper layout pattern in the proposed development which shall give coherency to the complex. 3. Buildings should be visually and physically connected to each other. Articulated use of open spaces and other built up spaces like rest areas, sit outs, markets etc. shall help in this. 4. Pedestrian movement is an important aspect of any complex so it should be kept in consideration. 5. There should always be a play of scale and proportion which makes the complex attractive. 6. A landmark building in any complex leads to the direction. 7. Proportion in between heights and open spaces to be followed which give proper view to the building. REFERENCES: https://www.ijert.org/research/importance-of-relationship-between-built-forms-amidst- open-spaces-in-historical-areas-IJERTV2IS2526.pdf https://www.academia.edu/28005677/Voids_in_Architecture_A_Study_of_Unbuilt_Spaces https://www.ijresm.com/Vol.2_2019/Vol2_Iss10_October19/IJRESM_V2_I10_190.pdf https://www.irjet.net/archives/V5/i8/IRJET-V5I882.pdf https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/14683/1/Al- Khafaji_2021_IOP_Conf._Ser.__Mater._Sci._Eng._1090_012028.pdf
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