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Open Access Developments in Europe, Sept 2014

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Open Access Developments in Europe, Sept 2014

  1. 1. Open Access developments in Europe Lars Bjørnshauge Director, SPARC Europe LIASA conference, Sept 23rd 2014
  2. 2. Europe • 50 countries • 35+ languages • Huge differences in GNP/capita – Moldova $1,6K, Ukraine $3.0K, Norway $ 85.0K • Different cultures, traditions and political systems • Different IPR/copyright legislation
  3. 3. OA in Europe • Crossnational associations: – ScienceEurope (Ass. of Nat. Res. Funders) – mandatory req. in all grant agreements – European University Ass. • OA Statement & Recommendations – LERU (Ass. of leading Univ.): Roadmap tow. OA – Knowledge Exchange (coll. UK, D, NL & DK): • Studies, reports, advocacy
  4. 4. OA in Europe – examples:collaboration and services • UK: Coordination via JISC • Germany: OA Information Platform (DFG, Max Planck, Helmholtz, Leibnitz, Volkswagen, German Rectors Conference) • Netherlands: OA.NL – (SURF, KWO etc): projects, • Sweden: OpenAccess.se: (Funders, Nat. Library, Univ. Libraries) – projects,
  5. 5. OA in Europe – examples:collaboration and services • France: among other initiatives the large multidisciplinary repository HAL & a large OA aggregator: Open Edition • Several countries have services where repositories are centrally harvested and data used for evaluation and ressource allocation: – N,S,DK & NL
  6. 6. OA in Europe • 40+ Research funders mandates (soft/hard) • 100+ Institutional mandates (soft hard) • 30+ universities or research funders allowing APC payments within the grants or have set-up publication funds to support payment of APCs • Several national policies and mandates in place (IS, DK, N, S, UK, IR, B, A, CH, H, ES).
  7. 7. The European Union
  8. 8. The European Union • 28 countries • 24 official languages • Circa 500 million people • Administrative centre: Brussels
  9. 9. The EU institutions • European Council • European Parliament • European Commission
  10. 10. Research funding in Europe • Central: through the Commission (~9%) – Instrument: Framework Programmes – FP7: 2007-2013 – (FP8) Horizon 2020: 2014-2020 – 9% of the total • National funding programmes in Member States (91%) – circa 90% of the total
  11. 11. European Commission: three key documents(16 July 2012) • Communication: ‘A reinforced European Research Area partnership for excellence and growth’ • Communication: ‘Towards better access to scientific information: boosting the benefits of public investments in research’ • Recommendation on access to and preservation of scientific information
  12. 12. H2020 policy development • Years in the making (Commission) • July 2012: policy announced (Commission) • Rules for Participation – Amendments by Parliament – Amendments by Council – Lots of to-ing and fro-ing – Last touches to wording now • Grant Agreement will define final, practical responsibilities for authors
  13. 13. Commissioner Neelie Kroes DG Information Society
  14. 14. “The question is no longer ‘if’ we should have open access. The question is about ‘how’ we should develop it further and promote it.” (Nellie Kroes, 02.12.2010)
  15. 15. H2020 and Open Access • Mandatory for peer-reviewed publications • ‘Green’ OA mandate (repositories) – Publish as normal in subscription-based journals – Place author’s copy in OA repository – Open Access within 6 months (STEM) or 12 months (HaSS) – Bibliographic metadata openly accessible from deposit • Permits payments from grants for OA journal publication: ‘Gold’ OA • Mute on monographs, but may be quite progressive on this in practice • Definite on data, announcing an open data pilot for H2020 • ‘Aim to deposit’ at the same time as the publication the data needed to validate the results (‘underlying data’)
  16. 16. FP7 >> H2020 FP7 H2020 ‘Green’ policy: ‘make best efforts…’ ‘Green’ mandate (obligatory) ‘Gold’ payments eligible ‘Gold’ payments eligible Covers 20% of research (selected fields) Will cover 100% of research (all fields) 6/12 month embargoes 6/12 month embargoes Data not included Open data pilot
  17. 17. Open Data pilot in H2020 • Covers 20% of the H2020 programme • Voluntary opt-in, and conditional opt-out • Programme areas under the mandate: – Future and Emerging Technologies – Research infrastructures – Leadership in Enabling and Industrial Technologies - ICTs – Societal Challenge: Secure, clean and Efficient energy – Societal Challenge: Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw materials – Societal Challenge: Europe in a changing world inclusive, innovative and reflective societies – Science with and for Society
  18. 18. Recommendation to Member states (July 2012) • Member States develop policies on OA • Consistency between H2020 policy and those of Member States • Multi-stakeholder dialogue to be established • Coordination of Member States at EU level • Reporting at Member States and EU level
  19. 19. Policy alignment • Irons out dissonances for researchers working in interdisciplinary areas or on international teams • Key issue in changing author practices and norms • Allows generic infrastructural services to be established in support of policy • Supports EU harmonisation agenda for ERA (research conditions, researcher mobility, etc)
  20. 20. Policy alignment • Irons out dissonances for researchers working in interdisciplinary areas or on international teams • Key issue in changing author practices and norms • Allows generic infrastructural services to be established in support of policy • Supports EU harmonisation agenda for ERA (research conditions, researcher mobility, etc)
  21. 21. European Research Area
  22. 22. European national funder mandates
  23. 23. European mandatory policies
  24. 24. Recent mandatory policies Europe USA/Canada 2012 Institutional 15 6 Funder 2 0 2013 Institutional 19 21 Funder 6 1 2014 Institutional 12 4 Funder 2 0 Total 2012-14 Institutional 46 31 Funder 10 2
  25. 25. Recent growth in mandates
  26. 26. Policy analysis Type Number Green OA mandate 36 Green OA mandate with Gold option 12 Gold preference with Green option 1 49 mandatory policies in ROARMAP Gold costs (APCs) can be paid from research grant = 19 or claimed from funder
  27. 27. Already +/- aligned in the ERA • Austria (Austrian Research Council, 2006) • Belgium (Flanders, 2007) • Belgium (Wallonia, 2013) • Denmark (the 5 research councils, 2012) • Hungary (Hungarian Research Fund, 2009) • Ireland (the 4 research funders + research organisations, 2012) • Norway (Norwegian Research Council, 2009) • Spain (National Government policy 2011) • Sweden (the 2 research councils, 2009, 2010) • Switzerland (Swiss National Science Foundation, 2007)
  28. 28. OA infrastructure for EU research Authors Institutional repositories OpenAIRE Readers Google, etc HARVEST
  29. 29. After the legislation… advocacy • Coordination across the Union • 28 Member States (some of which already have policies of their own) • Some have centres of expertise, many do not • Even amongst those that are fairly OA-aware there is a high level of misconception and lack of understanding • Coordination is key • Advocacy organisations will set to work
  30. 30. Two new projects • FOSTER: – Training for researchers and other stakeholders – Training for trainers • PASTEUR4OA: – Policy focus – Encourage and coordinate policy development across Europe
  31. 31. Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch that illuminates the world. Louis Pasteur, 1822-1895
  32. 32. So, despite the diversity.. lots of collaboration for the benefit of OA in Europe and beyond…
  33. 33. Global OA services originates out of Europe • ROARMAP • SHERPA/RoMEO • OpenDOAR • DOAB • DOAJ
  34. 34. Thank you for listening lars@arl.org www.sparceurope.org
  35. 35. Creative Commons License This work is licensed under Attribution 4.0 International License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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