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July 30-1130-Nicholas Hill

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2019 SWCS International Annual Conference
July 28-31, 2019
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Publicado en: Medio ambiente
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July 30-1130-Nicholas Hill

  1. 1. White Clover as a Living Mulch in Georgia: Transferring a Crop Production System to Improve Soil Health Nick Hill, Zack Sanders, Josh Andrews, Jill Mullican, Miguel Cabrera, Uttam Saha, David Radcliffe, Matt Levi, and Bill Vencill Crop/Soil Sciences; Feed and Environmental Water Lab Univ. of Georgia
  2. 2. Publications for Specifics Sanders Z.P., J.S. Andrews, U.K. Saha, W. Vencill, R.D. Lee, and N.S. Hill. 2017. Optimizing agronomic practices for clover persistence and corn yield in a white clover – corn living mulch system. Agron. J. 109:2025-2032. Sanders, Z.P., J.S. Andrews, and N.S. Hill. 2018. Water use efficiency in living mulch and annual cover crop corn production systems. Agron. J. 110:309-317. Andrews, J.S., Z.P. Sanders, M. Cabrera, U.K. Saha, and N.S. Hill. 2018. Nitrogen dynamics in living mulch and annual cover crop corn production systems. Agron. J. 110:1309-1317. Andrews, J.S., Z.P. Sanders, N.S. Hill, and D.E. Radcliffe. 2019. Simulated nitrate leaching in annually cover cropped and perennial living mulch corn production systems. Accepted – J. Soil Water Conservation.
  3. 3. Funding - $1.95 Million
  4. 4. Zack Sanders Josh Andrews Jill Mullican The Graduate Students
  5. 5. The Living Mulch Concept
  6. 6. 10 Research/Economic Questions 1. What planting configuration? 2. What ecosystem services? 3. How to manage crop residue? 4. Effect on soil health? 5. How much yield? 6. Economic robustness of LM system? 7. How does the LM system affect water use?* 8. What are the N dynamics of the LM system?* 9. How does the system affect nitrate leaching?* 10. What other row crops can we use?*
  7. 7. Q 1. What is the best planting configuration for the system? 36 inch row, 8-10 inch band 28 days after harvest 36 inch row, 8-10 inch band 56 days after harvest 30 inch row, 16 inch band 28 days after harvest 30 inch row, 16 inch band 56 days after harvest
  8. 8. Q 2. What ecosystem services are provided by living mulch? • Provides N to the Crop (30# vs 250# /A) • Prevents Erosion and Runoff • Reduced N leaching • Builds Soil Health • Minimizes Pesticide Inputs • Pollen Source for Honey Bees Cereal Rye 5” rain in 3 hrs Before LM 2 yrs LM Developing O Horizon Living Mulch
  9. 9. No-till corn system Living mulch system Oct. 1 Jan. 6 Cereal Rye Living Mulch Q 3. How do we manage corn residue to permit clover regrowth?
  10. 10. Treatment Added N Bulk Density Porosity Ksat * Water hold Labile C kg ha-1 g cm-3 % cm hr-1 cm3 cm-3 mg kg-1 No cover 250 1.41 47.0 1.83 46.7 549 Cereal Rye 250 1.40 47.0 2.98 46.3 579 Crim. Clover 150 1.36 48.7 3.21 46.3 640 Living mulch 30 1.25 52.3 4.72 47.0 780 Q 4. What is the impact of living mulch on soil health? *Guelph permeameter (tension infiltrometer)
  11. 11. Treatment Added N Yield (4 yr avg) ~lb/A Bu/A Living mulch 30 176 Crimson clover 150 203 Cereal rye 250 202 Q 5. What is the impact of living mulch on corn yield?
  12. 12. Q 6. What is economic return above variable costs? (4 yr yield avg) Current N price ~ $0.62/lb Corn @ $4.29 Corn @ $4.29
  13. 13. Research Summary • Production parameters: Wider rows, narrow clover band • Ecosystem services: Provides N to crop, Less runoff and erosion, Reduced N leaching, Fewer herbicides, Pollen for bees over extended period • Soil health: Lower BD; Increased macropores, Saturated water flow, Labile C; No change in water holding capacity • Corn yield/economics: Lower yield (-12%) Lower costs make LM system more economically robust
  14. 14. Where Do We Go From Here? • Outreach/Demonstration Field Days On-Farm Demonstrations
  15. 15. Farm Demonstration Sites Corn – Lee and Irwin Counties Cotton – Burke County, GA Elmore County, AL
  16. 16. Farm Demonstration Sites Corn – Lee and Irwin Counties Cotton – Burke County, GA Elmore County, AL
  17. 17. Corn Lee County, GA
  18. 18. Corn Irwing County, GA
  19. 19. June 26, 2019 July 3, 2019 Cotton Burke County, GA
  20. 20. Cotton Elmore County, AL July 1, 2019
  21. 21. Summary Outreach • A Learning curve at the farm Prior experience helps • Even with failures at first try: Farmers see value and willing to adjust • Topics for TRAINING VIDEOS – (Pennington Seed Company) - Philosophy and benefits - Mineral nutrition considerations - Clover establishment - Harvesting row crops - Banding herbicides - Post harvest residue management - Planting row crops - Alternate year considerations
  22. 22. Where Do We Go From Here? Partial Retirement Go Dawgs!!

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