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July 30-130-Claire Baffaut

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2019 SWCS International Annual Conference
July 28-31, 2019
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Publicado en: Medio ambiente
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July 30-130-Claire Baffaut

  1. 1. Effects of a Precision Agriculture System on Soil and Water Quality in the Central Mississippi River Basin Successive management systems in response to economic, social, and environmental pressures Claire Baffaut, Fessehaie Ghidey, Robert N. Lerch, Kristen S. Veum, E. John Sadler, Kenneth A. Sudduth, Newell R. Kitchen Soil and Water Conservation Society International Annual Conference Pittsburgh, PA. Jul. 28-31, 2019.
  2. 2. The Claypan Area Tucker Prairie, July 2018 Soil and Water Conservation Society International Annual Conference Pittsburgh, PA. Jul. 28-31, 2019.
  3. 3. • 72% crop land, distributed as (2006): • Soybean (56%) • Corn (26%) • Wheat (8%) • Others (10%) • Pasture and hay (16%) • Woodland (8%) • Urban (4%) Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed, now Crop production Soil and Water Conservation Society International Annual Conference Pittsburgh, PA. Jul. 28-31, 2019.
  4. 4. Experimental setup in the early 1990’s. • Replicated plots to compare production and transport of dissolved constituents from different grain cropping systems • Research field to monitor production and water quality at field scale.
  5. 5. Field 1 from 1990 -2003 • Corn – soybean rotation, sorghum in 1995 because of delayed planting • Pre-planting N and P • Pre-planting atrazine when in corn years • Spring tillage (cultivation, seedbed preparation, and inputs incorporation) • Weir for flow and water quality monitoring at the north end: • Sediment • Atrazine • Dissolved N and P
  6. 6. 2004: Transition to management zones based on profitability m
  7. 7. 2004-2014: Precision Agriculture System Fall 2004 • Wheat - Soybean • No-till • Winter and summer cover crops • No atrazine • N on wheat • 20-50 kg N ha-1 in October • 50-110 kg N ha-1 in late March or early April, top-dress, variable rate • P as needed (soil test P), variable timing • Corn – soybean • No-till • Winter and summer cover crops • Split application of atrazine in corn • N on corn • 20-60 kg N ha-1 in April – May • 100-150 kg N ha-1 early June to mid-July, top- dress, variable rate • P as needed (soil test P), variable timing
  8. 8. Objectives and Methods • Did the Precision Agriculture System make a difference in edge-of-field losses? • How did we do this? • Compare 1993-2003 and 2004-2014. • Average annual total expressed as a fraction of applied amounts • Flow and load duration curves and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test • Regression slope of Quantile-Quantile plots of daily flow and loads for the two systems.
  9. 9. Rainfall was similar over the two periods 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1993-2003 2004-2014 Rainfall (mm) Daily precipitation exceeds 10 mm (0.4”) 7.5% of the time.
  10. 10. Runoff was very similar as well 0 200 400 600 1993-2003 2004-2014 Runoff (mm)
  11. 11. No-till and cover crops reduce sediment loss One order of magnitude reduction Soil and Water Conservation Society International Annual Conference Pittsburgh, PA. Jul. 28-31, 2019. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 1993-2003 2004-2014 Sediment loss (kg ha-1) 87% reduction
  12. 12. Smaller atrazine loss? Not so simple but better than expected! Soil and Water Conservation Society International Annual Conference Pittsburgh, PA. Jul. 28-31, 2019. 0 1 2 Atrazine loss (kg) 0 2 4 6 1993-2003 2004-2014 Atrazine loss as a % of applied No significant difference
  13. 13. Nutrient loss 0 100 200 300 400 500 Dissolved N Dissolved P Dissolved nutrient loss (kg ha-1) 1993-2003 2004-2014 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Dissolved N Dissolved P Loss as a percentage of applied (%) 1993-2003 2004-2014
  14. 14. In Summary • The no-till precision agriculture system did not affect surface runoff volumes but improved its water quality, as shown by: • A large reduction in soil erosion and sediment transport • A significant reduction in surface runoff dissolved nitrogen. However, leaching, denitrification, and volatilization may have increased. • No significant increase in surface runoff dissolved phosphorus. • Lower runoff atrazine losses than expected. • It appears than cover crops have in part mitigated the effect of no-till losses on the loss of surface applied atrazine and phosphorus.
  15. 15. The challenge with this system! • Weeds in the wheat-soybean area. • Timing of field operations on the odd year: preparing the field and planting corn conflicts with harvesting wheat. • No-till Corn-soybean-wheat + cover crops on the whole field. • But that might not be enough… • Increased challenges with planting corn after wheat and cover crops during a wet spring. A win-win may not be feasible and compromises may be needed. Adaptive management never ends…

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