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July 30-330-CIG-James Rogers

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Publicado el

2019 SWCS International Annual Conference
July 28-31, 2019
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Publicado en: Medio ambiente
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July 30-330-CIG-James Rogers

  1. 1. Incorporating Summer Cover- Crops into a Southern Plains Winter Pasture Stocker System James Rogers, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Pasture and Range Noble Research Institute jkrogers@noble.org
  2. 2. 1981-2010 Normal Rainfall Ardmore, Oklahoma 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. rainfall in inches
  3. 3. The cover crop concept is not new Yearbook of Agriculture, 1938 U.S. Department of Agriculture Crop Oklahoma Texas Beggarweed E Bur-clover R E Black-medic R E Alsike, Crimson clover R, E E Hop clover R, E -- Red, white clover E E Cowpeas R, E R, E Crotalaria intermedia -- E Austrian winter peas R, E R, E Sericea Lespedeza E E Stipulacea lespedeza R R Striata lespedeza R R Oats R E Rye, ryegrass R, E E Weeds -- -- Hairy vetch R, E R, E R = Recommended, E = Experimental
  4. 4. Introduction • Wheat is the major crop grown in Oklahoma. • 1,822,500 all purpose hectares planted in 2017. • Grain only • Dual purpose • Graze only • 1,174,500 hectares harvested for grain. • 2016 value $470,925,000. • Summer fallow is common production practice • Land is susceptible to wind and water erosion. • No biomass production. • Lost opportunity for additional revenue.
  5. 5. Objectives 1. Measure the impact of a summer cover crop (grazing cover) on winter pasture production. 2. Monitor change in soil (health, structure) and water use over time. 3. Evaluate the economics of incorporating a grazing cover crop into a winter pasture production system.
  6. 6. Study area Site history – • 40.5 ha. • Loam, silt loam soils • Historically • 20.25 ha. tillage • 20.25 ha. no-till Treatments - Five, 2-ha paddocks No-till winter pasture – no cover crop (NT) Five, 2-ha paddocks No-till winter pasture with summer cover crop (NTCC) Five, 2-ha paddocks Tillage winter pasture – no cover crop (Till) Five, 2-ha paddocks Tillage winter pasture with cover crop (TillCC)
  7. 7. Methods • Winter pasture planted in September • Rate – 129 kg/ha • Nitrogen top dress after emergence 67 kg N/ha. • NT burn down 2.3-3.5 L/ha glyphosate. • NT – 1590 John Deere NT drill. • Till - Conventional 1-2 passes offset disk. • John Deere 450 drill pulled behind a Brillion cultipacker. • Graze stocker cattle November-grazeout • 220 kg at turn out • Removed in mid-April or early May. • Target .405 hd/ha stocking rate. • Summer cover crop planted in April-May • Seeding rate 34 kg/ha. • Cover crop grazed in June-August • Usually July turnout • 290 kg • .32 hd/ha (take half leave half) Grazing Grazing Grazing Winter pasture Summer cover crop Winter pasture Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
  8. 8. What we are measuring • Biomass production • Winter pasture • Cover crop • Animal performance • Winter pasture • Cover crop • Water infiltration – 2x/yr • Soil bulk density – 2x/yr after cover crop and winter pasture • Soil moisture and temperature – 3 depths 7.6, 25, 61 cm • Soil microbial community (bacteria and fungi) • Soil carbon • Standard soil test • Haney test
  9. 9. Variety % by weight Kg/ha Iron & Clay Cowpeas 21 6.7 Grp. 7 Stonewall Soybeans 21 6.7 Sunn Hemp 10 3.4 Pearl Millet – “Tiff leaf III” 10 3.4 German Millet 7 2.2 Brown top millet 7 2.2 BMR Grazing Corn 14 4.5 Buckwheat 10 3.4
  10. 10. Variety % seeds Kg/ha Iron & Clay Cowpeas 14 24 Pearl Millet – “Tiff leaf III” 82 7.0 Okra 4 3.3 Crop %CP %ADF %NDF %TDN RFV Okra 20.6 23.3 30.4 69.5 216.2 Cowpeas 21.7 23.3 32.5 69.5 202.3 Crabgrass 6.46 34.8 64.8 56.7 88.7 Millet 5.83 35.2 66.6 55.9 86.0 Nutrient value July 26, 2018
  11. 11. Year 1 cover crop establishment NTCC planted on May 28-30, 2016 TillCC planted on June 14, 2016
  12. 12. NT
  13. 13. Till
  14. 14. Component separations from 2016 TillCC and NTCC paddocks. 0.58 0.15 0.26 cover crop litter other 0.11 0.46 0.43 cover crop litter other TillCC NTCC
  15. 15. 2016 summer cover crop production 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 7/29/16 8/3/16 8/8/16 8/13/16 8/18/16 8/23/16 8/28/16 9/2/16 Kg/Ha NTCC TillCC
  16. 16. 2016 Cover crop animal performance ADG kg Total Gain kg NTCC TillCC NTCC TillCC 1.29 1.01 36.3 28.0 SE .07 SE 1.91 Grazing days – 28 Change in value - +$7/hd
  17. 17. Wheat planted September 19, 2016 Drone Flight November, 2016
  18. 18. 2016-2017 winter pasture production following first summer cover crop 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 DMKg/ha NTCC NT TillCC Till
  19. 19. 2016-17 winter pasture animal performance ADG kg Total Gain kg NT NTCC Till TillCC Till NT No Cover Cover 1.37a 1.22b 1.41a 1.42a 193A 167B 189a 171b SE .05 SE 4.7 Grazing days – NT – 132 NTCC – 126 Till – 140 TillCC - 132
  20. 20. 2017 summer cover crop production No-till cover crops planted May 2, 2017 Till cover crop paddocks planted June 8, 2017 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 DMkg/ha NTCC TillCC
  21. 21. 2017 Cover crop animal performance ADG kg Total Gain kg NTCC TillCC NTCC TillCC 1.66b 2.10a 82 86 SE .16 SE 6.7 Grazing days – NTCC - 49 TillCC - 41
  22. 22. 2017-2018 winter pasture production following second summer cover crop 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 11/1/2017 12/1/2017 1/1/2018 2/1/2018 3/1/2018 4/1/2018 DMkg/ha NTCC NT TillCC Till
  23. 23. Treat. Stocking rate/ha Grazing days Gain kg/ha ADG (kg) Hay kg/ha 15% moisture NT 0.18 51 71 1.27 2967 NTCC 0.19 51 92 1.52 2473 Till 0.23 51 101 1.43 3042 TillCC 0.17 51 65 3.19 2896 SE 41 0.05 110
  24. 24. 2018 summer cover crop production NTCC planted on May 29, 2018 TillCC planted on June 13, 2018 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 DMkg/ha NTCC TillCC
  25. 25. 2018-2019 winter pasture production following third summer cover crop 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 DMkg/ha NT NTCC Till TillCC All paddocks planted October 3-5, 2018
  26. 26. Soil bulk density 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 April, 2017 August, 2017 April, 2018 August, 2018 May, 2019 g/cm3 Soil bulk density 0-15cm profile NT NTCC Till TillCC
  27. 27. Water infiltration rate cm/hour 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 April, 2016 August, 2016 April, 2017 August, 2017 April, 2018 Infiltrationratecm/hr NT NTCC Till TillCC
  28. 28. 0-35cm soil moisture over time 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 1/11/16 4/10/16 7/9/16 10/7/16 1/5/17 4/5/17 7/4/17 10/2/17 12/31/17 3/31/18 6/29/18 9/27/18 %volumetric Till TillCC NT NTCC Summer Summer Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Drought DroughtSummer
  29. 29. 2015 Baseline Solvita Soil Health Index Haney Total Organic C Organic Matter Traditional Nitrate Haney Total Nitrogen Treat. CO2 ppm SE SE C ppm SE % SE N ppm SE N ppm SE TillCC 51.14 7.00 9.28 1.02 204 5.24 1.94 0.07 6.68 2.95 26.40 3.37 Till 70.36 7.27 10.98 0.48 218 10.28 1.90 0.18 4.36 0.99 25.30 1.19 NTCC 70.52 13.26 11.97 1.31 242 9.25 2.24 0.12 14.56 3.98 38.74 3.37 NT 47.00 6.77 9.42 0.83 204 6.80 2.16 0.10 12.60 2.83 35.66 3.69 August 2018 Post Cover Crop Solvita Soil Health Index Haney Total Organic C Organic Matter Traditional Nitrate Haney Total Nitrogen Treat. CO2 ppm SE SE C ppm SE % SE N ppm SE N ppm SE TillCC 43.92 6.81 8.75 0..87 164 8.08 1.32 0.08 4.80 2.08 20.14 5.75 Till 49.62 13.46 9.06 1.02 165 3.58 1.24 0.05 21.00 3.52 29.12 3.90 NTCC 46.08 4.39 9.31 0.54 179 6.60 1.38 0.09 2.40 1.32 14.42 0.79 NT 39.82 3.50 8.38 0.32 162 5.26 1.36 0.07 14.60 2.42 24.58 1.39 N limiting?
  30. 30. Summary • Grazing summer cover crops as part of a wheat system is difficult. • Grazing days are limited. • Holding over multiple crop seasons will aid profitability. • Hay summer covers feed back onto winter pasture? • Add additional N to winter pasture and/or cover crops? • Currently established small plot study to answer • A good no-till system with good residue works. • We have soil losses with tillage and we lose time. • Understanding water in the systems is a challenge. • Seasonal variation in soil measurements are high. • Beyond a species mix 4 only 25%-30% of the components contribute. • 2018-19 cover crop mix – Cow peas, pearl millet, okra
  31. 31. Thanks!

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