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July 30-330-CIG-Michael Marshall

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Publicado el

2019 SWCS International Annual Conference
July 28-31, 2019
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Publicado en: Medio ambiente
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July 30-330-CIG-Michael Marshall

  1. 1. Utilizing Cover Crops to Improve Water Quality and Reduce Soil Compaction in Coastal Plain Region Michael Marshall and Jose Payero Clemson University
  2. 2. Introduction  Coastal plain soils in the southeast US have a compaction layer (E) that forms between the sandy loam (A) and sandy clay loam (Bt) horizons
  3. 3. Introduction (cont)  Coastal plain soils also have low water holding capacity  Typically ~0.1 inch water /inch of soil  Low organic matter (<1.0%)  Nutrient losses can result from deep percolation of water from the root zone.
  4. 4. Introduction (cont)  Use of cover crops is increasingly popular sustainable farming practice.  Cover crop residues improve water infiltration and storage.  Cover crop also improve soil physical and help retain nutrients.
  5. 5. CIG Project Objectives  Establish cover crop demonstration sites in South Carolina and Georgia.  Evaluate the impacts of cover crops on water infiltration, holding capacity, and quality.  Implement training programs for county agents, growers, consultants on benefits of cover crops and water storage and quality.  Develop a IoT (Internet-of-Things) system for collecting soil moisture and water run-off from test sites.
  6. 6. CIG Project Methods  Grower field sites were divided into two sections (cover and no-cover).  Rye was planted in the cover section after crop harvest in the fall (~November).  Cover crops were terminated using herbicides in the spring of the following year.  The cash crop (cotton or soybean) was planted 21 days after termination.  Watermark soil moisture sensors installed at 4 depths (6,12,18, and 24
  7. 7. CIG Project Methods (cont) Soil Moisture Monitoring Equipment:
  8. 8. CIG Project Methods (cont)  An Environmental Quality Monitoring site was established at Edisto REC in 2018.  A six-acre field was subdivided into six one-acre sections (~100 by 500 ft).  Each section was bermed to prevent water from entering from a neighbor section.  At each outlet, a H-flume system was installed to measure and capture a portion of the run-off from each
  9. 9. CIG Project Methods (cont) Water Runoff Site (Water Quality Monitoring):
  10. 10. CIG Project Methods (cont)  The eTape device was installed in the H-flume to measure water depth during run-off events in each flume.  eTape was connected via IoT to transmit data to the internet for monitoring.
  11. 11. CIG Project Methods (cont)  A rye crop was seeded in the fall in 3 of the 6 sections.  Cover crops were terminated using herbicides in the spring of the following year.  The cash crop (cotton or soybean) was planted 21 days after termination.
  12. 12. Field View of H-Flumes
  13. 13. CIG Project Methods (cont) Water Runoff Site (Water Quantity and Quality Monitoring): Coordinator End NodeWireless Sensor Network
  14. 14. Water Quality Monitoring Site EREC Weather Station near Flume Field
  15. 15. ThingView App Data from weather station shown in cell phone using the ThingView app.
  16. 16. Soil Moisture Monitoring
  17. 17. CIG Project Results Demonstration Site Soil Moisture System Monitoring 2018
  18. 18. Soil Moisture Monitoring System Grower Field - 2019
  19. 19. Flume Runoff Site Results
  20. 20. Water Quality Monitoring Site EREC - 2019 Terminated Rye Cover with Cotton Conventional Tillage with Cotton
  21. 21. CIG Project Results Water Runoff Demonstration Site:
  22. 22. CIG Project Results Water Runoff Demonstration Site:
  23. 23. CIG Project Summary  Grower demonstration sites were established with a summer crops at each site in South Carolina/Georgia.  Automated soil moisture sensors were installed at the grower field sites in the cover and no-cover areas of the field at 6 demonstration sites in 2018 and 2019.  Soil moisture data was collected from grower’s fields and transmitted and stored Cloud using IoT technology (ThingView).  A weather station was constructed and installed at the water quality monitoring site at Edisto Research and Education Center.
  24. 24. CIG Project Impacts  Demonstrated that biomass from winter cover crops can help capture and maintain soil moisture in the following cash crop to growers in South Carolina and Georgia.  Developed the tools and methods for growers to monitor soil moisture from automated sensors using an app on their phone.  Established an IoT-based H-flume water quantity and quality system for collecting run- off from the field.  Demonstrated these results to growers at several field days and county meetings in 2018 and 2019
  25. 25. Funding Acknowledgements  USDA-NRCS CIG Grant Program  South Carolina Cotton Board