Motivationis the word derivedfrom the word ’motive’which meansneeds,
desires,wants or drives withinthe individuals.It is the process of
stimulatingpeople to actions to accomplishthe goals.In the work goal
contextthe psychologicalfactors stimulating the people’sbehaviourcan be
● desire for money
● team work, etc
One of the mostimportantfunctionsof managementis to create willingness
amongstthe employeesto perform in the bestof theirabilities.Therefore
the role of a leader is to arouse interestin performance of employeesin
The processof motivation consists ofthree stages:-
1. A felt need or drive
2. A stimulus in which needs haveto be aroused
3. When needs are satisfied,the satisfaction or accomplishmentof
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
3. Abraham Maslow is well renowned for proposing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 1943. This theory is a
classical depiction of human motivation. This theory is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy
of five needs within each individual. The urgency of these needs varies. These five needs are as follows
1. Physiologicalneeds- These are the basic needs of air, water, food,
clothing and shelter. In other words, physiologicalneeds are the
needs for basic amenities of life.
2. Safety needs-Safety needs include physical, environmental and
emotional safety and protection.For instance- Job security, financial
security, protectionfrom animals, family security, health security, etc.
3. Socialneeds-Social needs include the need for love, affection,care,
4. Esteem needs-Esteem needs are of two types: internal esteem
needs (self- respect,confidence,competence,achievementand
freedom)and external esteem needs (recognition,power, status,
attention and admiration).
5. Self-actualization need-This include the urge to become what you
are capable of becoming / what you have the potential to become.It
includes the need for growth and self-contentment.It also includes
desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity and
4. being aesthetic. The self- actualization needs are never fully satiable.
As an individual grows psychologically,opportunities keep cropping
up to continue growing.
Limitations of Maslow’s Theory
● It is essential to note that not all employeesare governed by same
set of needs.Differentindividuals may be driven by differentneeds at
same point of time. It is always the mostpowerfulunsatisfiedneed
that motivates an individual.
● The theory is not empirically supported.
● The theory is not applicable in case of starving artist as even if the
artist’s basic needs are not satisfied,he will still strive for recognition
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
In 1959,Frederick Herzberg,a behaviouralscientistproposeda two-
factor theory or the motivator-hygienetheory.Accordingto Herzberg,
there are some job factors that resultin satisfaction while there are
other job factors that preventdissatisfaction. Accordingto Herzberg,
the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction”and the opposite of
“Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction”.
Herzbergs view of satisfaction and dissatisfaction
5. FIGURE: Herzberg’s viewof satisfaction and dissatisfaction
Herzbergclassifiedthese job factors into two categories-
Hygiene factors-Hygiene factors are those job factors which are
essentialfor existence ofmotivation at workplace.These do notlead
to positive satisfaction for long-term.Butif these factors are absent/
if these factors are non-existantat workplace,then they lead to
dissatisfaction.In other words,hygiene factorsare those factors
which when adequate/reasonable in a job, pacify the employees and
do not make them dissatisfied.Thesefactors are extrinsic to work.
Hygiene factors are also called as dissatisfiersor maintenance
factors as they are requiredto avoid dissatisfaction.Thesefactors
describe the job environment/scenario:
Pay,Company Policiesand administrative policies.
Fringe benefits,PhysicalWorking conditions,Status ,Interpersonal
relations ,Job Securityetc
Motivationalfactors-Accordingto Herzberg,the hygienefactors
cannotbe regardedas motivators.Motivationalfactors include:
Recognition,Senseof achievement,Growth and promotional
opportunities, Responsibility,Meaningfulness of the work
6. Importance of Motivation
Motivation is a very important for an organization because of the following
benefits it provides:
1. Puts human resources into action
Every concern requires physical, financial and human resources to
accomplishthe goals. It is through motivation that the human
resources can be utilized by making full use of it. This can be done by
building willingness in employeesto work. This will help the
enterprise in securing bestpossible utilization of resources
2. Improves level of efficiency of employees
The level of a subordinate or a employee does not only depend upon
his qualifications and abilities. For getting bestof his work
performance,the gap between ability and willingness has to be filled
which helps in improving the level of performance of subordinates.
This will result into-
● Increase in productivity,
● Reducing cost of operations, and
● Improving overall efficiency
3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals
The goals of an enterprise can be achieved only when the following
factors take place :-
● There is bestpossible utilization of resources,
● There is a co-operative work environment,
4. Builds friendly relationship
Motivation is an important factor which brings employeessatisfaction.
This can be done by keeping into mind and framing an incentive plan
for the benefitof the employees.
5. Leads to stability of work force
7. Stability of workforce is very important from the point of view of
reputation and goodwillof a concern.The employeescan remain
loyal to the enterprise only when they have a feeling of participation in
Essentials / Features of a Good Motivation
● Performance appraisal system should be very effective.
● Ensure flexibility in working arrangements.
● A sound motivation system must be correlated to organizational goals. Thus, the
individual/employee goals must be harmonized with the organizational goals.
● The motivational system must be modified to the situation and to the
● A sound motivation system requires modifying the nature of individual’s jobs. The
jobs should be redesigned or restructured according to the requirement of
situation. Any of the alternatives to job specialization - job rotation, job
enlargement, job enrichment, etc. could be used.
● The management approach should be participative. All the subordinates and
employees should be involved in decision- making process.
● The motivation system should involve monetary as well as non- monetary
rewards. The monetary rewards should be correlated to performance.
Performance should be based on the employees’ action towards the goals, and
not on the fame of employees.
● “Motivate yourself to motivate your employees” should be the managerial
● The managers must understand and identify the motivators for each employee.
● Sound motivation system should encourage supportive supervision whereby the
supervisors share their views and experiences with their subordinates, listen to
the subordinates views, and assist the subordinates in performing the designated
Some of the factors that can motivate
8. Employees are the building blocks of an organization. Organizational
success dependson the collective efforts of the employees.The
employees will collectivelycontribute to organizational growth when they
Evaluate yourself-In order to motivate, encourage and control your staff’s
behaviour, it is essential to understand, encourage and control your own behaviour as a
Be familiar with your staff- The manager should be well acquainted with his staff.
The more and the better he knows his staff, the simpler it is to get them involved in the
job as well as in achieving the team and organizational goals. This will also invite staff’s
commitment and loyalty
Provide the employees certain benefits- Give your staff some financial and
other benefits. Give them bonuses, pay them for overtime, and give them health and
family insurance benefits. Make sure they get breaks from work. Let them enjoy
vacations and holidays.
Participate in new employees induction programme- Induction proceeds
with recruitment advertising. At this point of time, the potential entrants start creating
their own impressions and desires about the job and the organization.
Provide feedback to the staff constantly-The staff members are keen to
know how they are performing. Try giving a regular and constructive feedback to your
staff. This will be more acceptable by the staff.
Acknowledge yourstaff on their achievements-A pat on the back, some
words of praise, and giving a note of credit to the employee / staff member at personal
level with some form of broad publicity can motivate the staff a lot.
Ensure effectivetime management-Having control over time ensures that
things are done in right manner. Motivate your staff to have “closed” times, i.e., few
hours when there are no interruptions for the staff in performing their job role so that
they can concentrate on the job, and “open” times when the staff freely communicate
9. Have stress managementtechniquesin your organization-Create an
environment in which you and your staff can work within optimum pressure levels.
Ensure an optimistic attitude towards stress in the workplace.
Use counsellingtechnique- The employees’ / staff feelings towards the work,
their peer, their superiors and towards the future can be effectively dealt through the
staff counseling. Counselling provides an environment, incentive and support which
enable the employee to achieve his identity.
Give the employees learningopportunities- Employees should consistently
learn new skills on the job. It has been well said by someone that with people hopping
jobs more often than required and organizations no longer giving job security to
employees, the young blood employees specifically realize that continuing learning is
the best way to remain employable. Opportunities should be given to the employees to
develop their skills and competencies and to make best use of their skills.
Ensure effectivecommunication- In order to motivate your staff, indulge in
effective communication such as avoid using anger expressions, utilize questioning
techniques to know staff’s mindset and analysis rather than ordering the staff what to
do, base your judgements on facts and not on assumptions, use relaxed and steady
tone of voice, listen effectively and be positive and helpful in your responses. Share
your views with the staff.
The Google Way of
INTRODUCTION TO GOOGLE’S WORK CULTURE
10. Google’s model of motivation and leadership topples traditional leadership theory which
focuses more on results than on the people who deliver those results. The company’s work
culture is true to its philosophy:
“To create the happiest, most productive workplace in
While the company was in its early days, its co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin went
looking out for organizations that were known to care for people, develop truly amazing
brands and trigger extraordinary innovation. The objective of this search was to be able to
draw and keep great talent. In their search, they found the SAS institute (which was then
ranked No. 1 on the Great Place to Work Institute’s list of best multinational companies to
work for) as one company that was worth modeling. Interactions with SAS executives led
the Google founders to understand that people were really successful in their jobs and loyal
too when they felt truly valued and thoroughly supported. The result was the Google work
culture as we know it now with huge and plentiful perks, unconventional (or weird) office
designs, and amazing freedom, flexibility and transparency, among other things.
EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION THE
Uncommon Yet Affordable, Amazing Perks and
● Reimbursement of up to $5000 to employees for legal expenses
● Maternity benefits of a maximum of 18 weeks off at about 100 percent pay. The
father and mother of the newborn are given expenses of a maximum of $500 for
take-out meals in the initial 3 months they spend at home with the baby (Take-Out
11. ● Financial support for adopting a child (Google’s Adoption Assistance)
● On-site car wash, oil change, bike repair, dry cleaning, gym, massage therapy and
hair stylist are available at the company’s headquarters in Mountain View
● At the Googleplex, there’s an onsite doctor and free fitness center and trainer and
facility to wash clothes among other benefits
● Lunch and dinner is available free of charge, In addition, an assortment of delicious
but healthy meals are available every day, prepared by gourmet chefs.
Voice and Value
At Google, democracy prevails with employees given a considerable voice. Here are some
● The company hosts employee forums on all Fridays where there is an examination
of the 20 most asked questions.
● Employees can make use of any of a number of channels of expression to
communicate their ideas and thoughts. Channels include Google+ conversations, a
wide variety of surveys, Fixits (24 hour sprints wholly dedicated to fixing a specific
problem), TGIF and even direct emails to any of the Google leaders.
● Googlegeist, the company’s biggest survey seeks feedback on hundreds of issues
and then employs volunteer employee teams all over the company to resolve the
● Employees are regularly surveyed about their managers. The results of the survey
are used to publicly acknowledge the best managers and make them role models or
teachers for the next year. The worst managers are provided with vigorous support
and coaching, with the help of which 75 percent improve within a quarter.
As Google is a company that considers its people to be its biggest asset, everything that
can be shared, is shared. In this way, they are able to show their employees that they trust
them with confidentiality and trust their judgement.
Freedom over How and When Work is Completed
One of Google’s strongly held beliefs is that they can get amazing output from people by
giving them freedom. Indeed, research by Sir Michael Marmot, Professor of Epidemiology
and Public Health at the University College, London is proof of that fact.
In this flat hierarchy organization, engineers have plenty of flexibility when it comes to
selecting the projects they work on. The organization also encourages its staff to pursue
One of the reasons why people don’t feel motivated at their jobs is that the work assigned to
them is frequently deficient in variety or challenge. The monotonous nature of the work with
no growth in sight dulls employee enthusiasm.
Fun is a Regular Aspect of Work
In keeping with Google’s philosophy, life at Google is not all work. There are plenty of
opportunities for fun which help Googlers get out of their office and even interact more with
Unconventional Office Designs
Google is known for its unusual and often wild office designs. The designs are done to
serve several purposes including casual collisions for creative people and engineers to
WORK STILL GETS DONE
With all the fun, flexibility, freedom and perks that seem to be an employee’s heaven, one
can’t help wondering if any work really gets done at Google. The truth is that not only does
work get done but, Googlers usually surpass management expectations for delivering
13. Finally, as discussed above, there is no set formula on what organizations can do or cannot do to
motivate the employees. The best approach would be to let employees find their own niche within the
organization and let them actualize their potential instead of forcing them to do work that is not to their
liking. Apart from this, many industry veterans are also of the view that employees have to find their
company that suits them and hence, clinging on to jobs that do not motivate them is counterproductive.