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Biodiversity and Pollution.pptx

  1. GURU GHASIDAS VISHWAVIDYALAYA • Submitted by- • R.Akhila • Parul Barik • Pranay Dewangan • Rakesh Gadhewal • Omprakash Bhoi • Samanvay Singh Presentation on POLLUTION AND BIODIVERSITY
  2. INTRODUCTION BIODIVERSITY Bio- life Diversity- variety • Biodiversity is the variety of life forms on earth and the interdependence of all living things. Term first coined by Walter G. Rosen in 1985. • Levels of biodiversity 1. Species diversity- variety of species with in a community/region. Species richness and species evenness 2. Genetic diversity- amount of genetic variation. it enables a population to adapt to its environment and to respond to natural selection. 3. Community/Ecosystem diversity- the ecosystem in which communities exist and the interaction among them. Describes the number of niches, trophic levels and various ecological processes.
  3. • BIODIVERSITY SERVICES Provisioning services Food Wood and fibre Medicinal plants fuel Supporting services Nutrient cycling Primary production Soil formation Regulating services Climate regulation Flood control Water purification Disease prevention Pollination • Biodiversity loss- extinction of different species, as well as the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat, resulting in a loss of biological diversity. • Causes of biodiversity loss- Habitat destruction Invasive species Over-exploitation Global worming and climate change Pollution Introduction of exotic species Natural calamities Cultural services Aesthetic Spiritual Educational recreational
  4. • POLLUTION Undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological properties of air, water, land and soil that causes adverse effect on living beings and their physical environment. Types of pollution On the basis of kind of pollutant involved Pollutants Biodegradable Non-degradable Rapidly decomposed Do not degrade or under natural condition degrade very slowly in nature Ex- Domestic waste Ex- Heavy metals, pesticides On the basis of the type of environment being polluted Air, water, land and soil.
  5. AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the alteration of atmospheric chemistry by air pollutants from natural and anthropogenic sources. Methods of Detection and Measurement of Air Pollution: Air pollution is usually measured by sampling of air by thermal and by electrostatic precipitation, Sonkin impactor and electrostatic dust collectors. The particulate pollution is measured by the instrument called deposit gauge or by Owen’s dust counter. The thickness of the smoke is measured by Liegean sphere and by Ringelmann chart. The rough estimation of SO2 in air can be made by chemical analysis of the dust collected in a deposit gauge or by a bubbler method. Fluorides are estimated by colour reactions. Sources of Air Pollution 1.Air Pollution by Natural Means: Nature adds few natural pollutants such as pollen, hydrocarbons released by vegetation, dusts from deserts, storms, and volcanic activity. DUST STORMS sometimes carry fine sand for thousands of kilometres and favourable weather conditions stimulate the release of pollen, affecting people sensitive to it. NATURAL SOURCES • The emission of SO2 from volcanoes, • O3 from lightening, • Particulates and CO2 from naturally occuring fires etc ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES Mobile sources Ex- the transport vehicles Stationary sources Ex- power plants, metal smelters, industry etc
  6. 2. Air Pollution by Human Activities: (a) Industrial chimney wastes: • Petroleum refineries are the major sources of gaseous pollutants (e.g., SO2, NOx, etc.) • Industrial processors • Cement factories emit plenty of dust, which is potential health hazard. Stone crushers and hot mix plants also create a menace. (b) Thermal power stations (c) Automobiles The transportation industry exclusive of automobiles and including railroads, ships, aircrafts, trucks, tractors, etc. Types Of Air Pollutants: All the just described sources of air pollution release the following air pollutants: 1. Carbon compounds (e.g., CO2, CO); 2. Sulphur compounds (e.g., SO2, H2S and H2 SO4) 3. Nitrogen oxides NO, NO2 and HNO3); 4. Ozone (O3); 5. Flurocarbons; 6. Hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, benzypyrene, etc.); 7. Metals (e.g., lead, nickel, arsenic, beryllium, tin, vanadium, titanium, cadmium, etc.); 8. Photochemical products olefins, aldehydes, photochemical smog, PAN, PB2N, etc.); 9. Particulate matter (e.g., fly ash, dust, grit and SPM); and 10. Toxicants. Secondary Air Pollution: Photochemical smog: HC+NO+O2NO2+PAN Acid deposition: It is several ways by which acid forming substances fallout of the atmosphere to the surface of the earth. It has two forms ,wet and dry. • Wet deposition refers to acidic rain (also fog and snow)due to presence of sulphuric acid and nitric acid. • Dry deposition refers to acidic gases and particulates that are washed from trees and other surfaces by rainstorms.
  7. AIR POLLUTION EFFECT ON PLANTS: Plants respond to the air pollutants like SO2,O3 AND HNO3 generally include : • Development of chlorotic and necrotic spots on leaves. • Increase in leaf senescence and drop (e.g. due to O3 exposure). • Reduced photosynthesis (SO2 particularly inhibits the oxidizing side of photosystem 2). • Reduced stomatal conductance. • Change in root to shoot ratio. • Reduced growth. Effects of Air Pollution on Weather, Climate, and Atmospheric Processes: At gross level, air pollution causes two worldwide problems – contamination of the upper atmosphere and the alteration of weather and climate. • Green house effect. • Peeling of ozone umbrella by CFMs. Control of Air Pollution 1. Prevention and control of vehicular pollution (a) Curbing the pollutant emission from vehicular exhaust: This type of control can be attained by • using new proportion of gasoline and air; • more exact timing of fuel feeding; • using gas additives to improve combustion; • by injecting air into the exhaust to convert exhaust compounds into less toxic substances, and • by correcting the engine design and/or fixing cessation device to improve combustion with the existing design. (b) Control of evaporation from fuel tank and carburetter. (c) Use of filters. Filters can be used to capture and recycle the escaped gases (hydrocarbons) from the engine (i.e., the gas vapours which escape between walls and the piston and reach the crankcase). 2. Prevention and control of industrial pollution. (a) Removal of particulate matter. This step involves the use of following equipments : i) Cyclone collector. (ii) Electrostatic precipitators (ESP(s). (b) Removal of gaseous pollutants. (i) Wet systems (ii) Dry systems (iii) Wet dry systems
  8. NOISE POLLUTION Noise is primarily a feature of cities and is defined as ‘sound without value’ or ‘any noise that is undesired by the recipient”. High intensity sound or noise pollution is caused by many machines man has invented during his technological advancement. Thus, there exists a long list of sources of noise pollution including • different machines of numerous factories, industries and mills, • different kind of auto and motor vehicles such as scooters, motorbikes, cars, tempos, buses, trucks, tractors, aircrafts, motorboats, ships, loudspeakers, social gatherings, loud pop-music, supersonic aircrafts, etc. Noise can be measured by a sound metre and is expressed in a unit called the decibel (dB). The quietest sound that the human ear can detect (zero decibels) is called the threshold of hearing. Health Hazards of Noise Pollution Noise causes disturbances in the atmosphere which in turn interferes with the systems of communication. It affects our peace of mind, health and behaviour. Sudden loud note can cause acute damage to the ear drum and the tiny hair cells in the internal ear, whereas prolonged noise results in: • temporary loss of hearing or even permanent impairment. • headache irritability and impairs focussing. • flush the skin, constrict stomach muscles and produce ulcers, heart disease, high blood pressure, nervousness and other defects in sensory and nervous systems. Reducing Noise Pollution The means of noise control are : (a) to manipulate the source so as to reduce the noise at its origin; (b) to interrupt the path of transmission and (c) to protect the recipient. (d) Nobody should be permitted to create noise in silent zones or during night. (e) Noise producing traffic vehicles should be prevented from plying on the roads and their use of pressure horns should be entirely checked. (f) adequate varieties of vegetation which can be planted around factories, hospitals, educational institutions, public libraries and houses which may reduce sound pollution (g) simply stuff a bit of cotton or ear plugs in the ears to reduce much hazards of noise pollution
  9. •Sewage treatment •Physico-chemical treatment system •Biological treatment •Recycling water and pollutants •Bioremediation
  10. SOIL POLLUTION  Soil pollution refers to the contamination of soil with anomalous concentrations of toxic substances. OR.  It is important to understand that all soils contain compounds that are harmful/toxic to human beings and other living organisms. Soil pollution is defined as the presence of toxic chemical (pollutants or contamination) in soil in high enough conc. To pose a risk to human health and/ or the ecosystem. In case of contaminant which occur naturally in soil, even when there level are not high enough to pose risk, soil pollution is still said to occur if the level of contaminant in soil exceed the level that should naturally be present.
  11. What are the soil pollutants that contaminate Soil ? 1. HEAVY METALS  The presence of heavy metals (such as lead and mercury, in abnormally high concentrations) in soils can cause it to become highly toxic to human beings 2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (often abbreviated to PAHs) are organic compounds that Contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms Contain more than one aromatic ring in their chemical structures. 3. Industrial Waste  The discharge of industrial waste into soils can result in soil pollution. Some common soil pollutants that can be sourced from industrial waste are listed below.  Chlorinated industrial solvents Dioxins are produced from the manufacture of pesticides and the incineration of waste. 4. Pesticides  Herbicides – used to kill/control weeds and other unwanted plants.  Insecticides – used to kill insects.  Fungicides – used to kill parasitic fungi or inhibit their growth.
  12. EFFECTS IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS  Since soil pollution is often accompanied by a decrease in the availability of nutrients, plant life ceases to thrive in such soils.  Soils contaminated with inorganic aluminium can prove toxic to plants. Also, this type of pollution often increases the salinity of the soil, making it inhospitable for the growth of plant life.  Plants that are grown in polluted soil may accumulate high concentrations of soil pollutants through a process known as bioaccumulation.  When these plants are consumed by herbivores, all the accumulated pollutants are passed up the food chain. This can result in the loss/extinction of many desirable animal species. Also, these pollutants can eventually make their way to the top of the food chain and manifest as diseases in human beings. IN ECOSYSTEM  Since the volatile contaminants in the soil can be carried away into the atmosphere by winds or can seep into underground water reserves, soil pollution can be a direct contributor to air and water pollution. It can also contribute to acid rain (by releasing huge quantities of ammonia into the atmosphere).  Acidic soils are inhospitable to several microorganisms that improve soil texture and help in the decomposition of organic matter. Thus, the negative effects of soil pollution also impact soil quality and texture.
  13. What is Land pollution? Land pollution is any physical or chemical change in land which adversely affects the growth of plants and other organisms & directly or indirectly becomes a health hazard to mankind. How’s Land Pollution Caused?  Caused by trash and toxic wastes humans leave on the land.  Lack of recycling which leads to filling up landfills.  Chemical plants and coal-fired plants cause land pollution.  Another cause is acid rain and trash that washes ashore from boats and sewage outlets.  Disposing resources too quickly.
  14. Chief pollutants of land pollution and their major sources. Land Pollution Radioisotope s Wastes (Solid, liquid) Mining Metals Pesticides Mining Ores Industries Vehicles Waste products Refuse dumps Sludges Agriculture Gardens, Lawns, Park, playing field etc. Wastes from nuclear power plants Research laboratories Households/Municipal works Industries Sludge Mines Agriculture Hospitals & Nursing homes
  15. What if land pollution isn’t fixed?  Land will become unreliable for life and our agricultural use.  Land pollution becomes hazardous to our health.  Land fills and waste dumps increase in size, which takes up a lot of land and space from wildlife and humans. Why may people not want to help stop land pollution?  No time or patience to recycle and use organic products.  People argue that preventing this issue is too expensive.  Impossible and unimportant.  Land pollution has already escalated to a point where it can’t be helped by human beings. How do we stop land pollution?  Recycle and disposal of trash correctly.  Help clean up the environment by cleaning parks and roads.  Recycle so that the items you recycle can be made into bridges, cars freezers and benches.
  16. How else can we help stop land pollution?  With the amount of land pollution we have now, it’s very hard to erase.  We can’t get rid of the pollution that’s already there but we can prevent and control any future land pollution.  Try using products that don’t have a lot of packaging to throw away.  Buy items that are sold in reusable containers and by biodegradable products. How does land pollution affect us?  Land pollution pollutes the environment and our ecosystems.  It causes health problems like birth defects, cancer & respiratory problems.  It can harm wildlife plants and animals.
  17. ECOTOXICOLOGY Ecotoxicology is the study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms especially at the population, community and ecosystem level. It is a multidisciplinary field, which integrates toxicology and ecology. TYPES:- 1) Organic 2) Inorganic
  18. DISTRIBUTION AND FATE OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES:- • Persistence • Chemical Interactions • Acute and Chronic Toxicity TOXIC EFFECTS:- 1) On Living Organisms- Teratogens, Carcinogens, Mutagens, Estrogens 2) On terrestrial environment 3) On aquatic systems
  19. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT • Hazard identification • Exposure assessment • Dose-response assessment • Risk Characterisation