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Soilless Agriculture

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Soilless Agriculture

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The Soilless type of agriculture is disscussed in detail with its different types i.e. Hydroponics and Aeroponics. The different growing mediums required for hydroponics. The comparison between two is also done along with their own advantages and disadvantages.

The Soilless type of agriculture is disscussed in detail with its different types i.e. Hydroponics and Aeroponics. The different growing mediums required for hydroponics. The comparison between two is also done along with their own advantages and disadvantages.

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Soilless Agriculture

  1. 1. WEL-COME
  2. 2. GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, AURANGABAD Student’s Name : Sanika Kale. Class : S.E. (MECH) Roll Number : BE13F02F027 Teacher’s Name : Vishnu Potdar.
  3. 3. Index Introduction 4 Objectives 7 Hydroponics 8 Types of hydroponics 9 i) Wick system 10 ii) Water Culture System 11 iii) Ebb and Flow system 12 iv) Drip system 13 v) Nutrition Film Technique 15 Growing medium and its types 16 We can grow… 21 Aeroponics 23 Comparison between hydroponics and Aeroponics 25 Discussion 26 Summary 28 Suggestions 29 References 30
  4. 4. Definition of Soilless agriculture : Soilless agriculture can be defined as growing vegetables in greenhouse systems in solid environments other than soil which is enriched by nutritional solutions.
  5. 5. Types of Soilless Agriculture : 1. Hydroponic : Hydroponic is nothing but the cultivation of plants by placing the roots in liquid nutrient solutions rather than in soil. The word, Hydroponic, comes from Latin and means working water. 2. Aeroponic : Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate medium. The word "aeroponic" is derived from the Greek meanings of aero- (air) and ponos (labour).
  6. 6. To bring to each one present here an awareness of a methodology of cultivation called Soil-less Cultivation. To educate the students of how this technology can play an important part in helping conserve water and yet derive yields of unimaginable magnitudes. To develop a positive attitude towards the soilless cultivation so as to spread the knowledge and increase in the cultivation by encouraging other people.
  7. 7. 1. Wick System 2. Water Culture System 3. Ebb & Flow System 4. Drip System 5. Nutrition Film Technique 6. Aeroponic
  8. 8. 1. Wick System  It is the most simple and basic form  It is a passive system i.e., it contains no moving parts  Easier to establish and cheaper  Consist of Grow tray (filled with growing medium), reservoir, wick and aeration system  Reservoir is a nothing but tank filled with nutrition solution.  Wicks are used to transport nutrition solution to the roots of plants in grow tray through capillary action  Aeration system is required to maintain level of oxygen in nutrition solution which is useful for the health of plants
  9. 9. 2. Water Culture System  Simplest of all active hydroponic systems  Roots of plants are in direct contact of nutrition solution  Floating platform generally made up of Styrofoam is used to hold the plants  Aeration system consisting of air pump, air line and air stone is needed for necessary supply of oxygen  Fast growing water loving plants such as leaf lettuce, herbs are ideal choice for this type of hydroponic systems
  10. 10. 3. Ebb & Flow System  As the name suggest this system follow a continuous process of flowing (flooding) nutrition solution to the roots and then falling back from the flood stage to the reservoir with certain period of time  The time period depends on sixe and type of plants, temperature and humidity and the type of growing medium used.  Solution is flooded using water pump and drained out using drain tube.  Main drawback is there is a vulnerability to power outages as well as pump and timer failures. The roots can dry out quickly when the watering cycles are interrupted.
  11. 11. 4. Drip System Recovery Drip Systems Non Recovery Drip Systems
  12. 12. Comparison of Recovery and Non Recovery Drip Systems Recovery Drip Systems  Doesn't require precise control of the watering cycles so inexpensive timer can be used  A recovery system can have large shifts in the pH and nutrient strength levels that require periodic checking and adjusting Non Recovery Drip Systems  Needs to have a more precise timer to adjust watering cycles so that plants get appropriate amount of nutrient solution  Requires less maintenance because the excess nutrient solution isn't recycled back into the reservoir, so the nutrient strength and pH of the reservoir will not vary
  13. 13. 5. Nutrient Film Technique  Constant flow of nutrition solution so no timer required for the submersible pump  The nutrient solution is pumped into the growing tray (usually a tube) and flows over the roots of the plants, and then drains back into the reservoir  no growing medium other than air  plant is supported in a small plastic basket with the roots dangling into the nutrient solution.  very susceptible to power outages and pump failures. The roots dry out very rapidly when the flow of nutrient solution is interrupted
  14. 14. Q. What is growing medium? Answer : Growing medium is a medium other than soil which is inert and non-organic material. Q. Why growing medium is needed? Answer : First of all it is used because it is the major support for the plants to hold them up. Then these are useful because of their water holding capacity, porosity and many other properties leading to appropriate nutrition solution supply, proper oxygenation of roots which keeps plants healthy. Q. What are its types? Which is the best one to be used? Answer : There are many no. of types of growing mediums. Choice of growing medium depends on its properties as well as type of hydroponic system used for production of plants. FAQ :
  15. 15. TYPES – 1. Coco coir  Excellent moisture holding ability and inert characteristics  It is basically produced from a brown husk which surrounds a coconut shell  Coconut coir is sold in small compressed packets which expand 6 to 8 times in volume when water is added  Though it has good aeration property its disadvantage is it breaks down after several use and can not drain out quickly
  16. 16. TYPE – 2. Hydroton  Most versatile growing mediums in the gardening world  HYDROTONS ARE NOT ROCKS AT ALL !!!  They are actually an expanded clay product.  Hydroton has a porous structure which makes it easy to absorb appropriate amount of water  It keeps its shape as it is which leads to ease in exchange of Oxygen with roots  Hydroton is a pH neutral product
  17. 17. TYPE – 3. Perlite  Perlite is a light weight, porous and inert material.  It is made by heating silica (flakes of glass) until it expands (like popcorn).  This medium keeps plants more open to air, while still having good water- retention properties, and therefore it makes a good medium for hydroponics  Reusable; inexpensive lightweight filler.  Drawback is it cannot be used alone for ebb & flow, as it tends to float away or move during the flooding cycle.
  18. 18. There are many… Vermiculite Peat Moss Sawdust Coarse Sand  Rockwool  Pea Gravel Grow Stones Oasis Cubes
  19. 19. We Can Grow…
  20. 20. And also…
  21. 21. • In Aeroponic systems the roots hang in the air and are misted with nutrient solution. • The mistings are usually done every few minutes. • Because if the roots are exposed to the air they will dry out rapidly if the misting cycles are interrupted. • In aeroponic, growing medium is primarily air • The aeroponic system is probably the most high-tech type soilless agricultural system
  22. 22. Comparison Between Aeroponic and Hydroponic Aeroponic  No growing medium is used aeroponic systems  Aeroponic systems typically employ boards, foam sheets, plastic clips or other methods to suspend the plants in space. Hydroponic  Various types of growing mediums are used based on the requirements in different hydroponic systems  Growing mediums itself acts as a support for plants.
  23. 23. Discussion : Hydroponic Advantages  Crops using hydroponic can be grown where soil is unsuitable for traditional agriculture like desert areas.  Plant diseases are highly reduced due the absence of soil  Hydroponics uses less than 1/10th - 1/5th of the water used in soil cultivation.  Bigger and higher yields are obtained Disadvantages  Initial costs to develop hydroponic system is higher  Deeper knowledge and careful study along with skilled labouring is needed  Needs more attention and small mistakes may lead to much losses
  24. 24. Discussion : Aeroponic Advantages  Crops are grown close together, so more crops can be grown.  Plants are not exposed to soil disease or bacteria, so no pesticide is needed, which means healthier crops.  The crops mature faster, which means there will be more harvests. Disadvantages  A lot of money is needed to set- up an aeroponics farm.  Many consumers believe that aeroponically grown plants are not as nutritious as other grown plants  Maintenance of an aeroponics farm is very expensive.
  25. 25. Summary  Hydroponics is relatively modern technology and can be proved as a good option for traditional cultivation using soil for better yield of crops.  Hydroponics are easier to establish and one can make a small garden in front of home and can get good quality of vegetables with a little more effort.  Aeroponics helps to conserve water, land and nutrients, so the aeroponics system is the way of the future, making cultivation of crops easier.  Aeroponic growing allows plants and crops to grow without the use of pesticide and thus it will be disease free.
  26. 26. Suggestions  More and more research work should be done on the subject.  Government should take more interest to encourage the people for investing in these types of cultivations.  Various types of funding should be made available for promoting establishment of soilless cultivation by Government on large scale.  Educational seminars on the topic should be arranged through out the country to educate more and more people so as to increase the soilless type of cultivation.  Separate topic should be included in the curriculum of agriculture to implement the new thinking about agriculture in young generation.
  27. 27. References  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroponics  www.simplyhydro.com/whatis.htm  ag.arizona.edu/ hydroponictomatoes  www.hydroponics.about.com  Hydroponics for the 21st century.pdf  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeroponic  www.aeroponics.com  Aeroponics for vegetable growing.pdf

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