2. WORLD’S 20 TALLEST BUILDINGS BY 2020
FROM LEFT – RIGHT
1. KINGDOM TOWER, JEDDAH
2. BURJ KHALIFA, DUBAI
3. PING AN FINANC, SCHENZEN
4. SEOL LIGHT DMC TOWER
5. SIGNATURE TOWER, JAKARTA
6. SHANGHAI TOWER, SHANGHAI
7. WUHAN GREENLAND CENTER
8. MAKKAH ROYAL CLOCK TOWER
9. GOLDEN FINANCE 117, TIANJIN
10. LOTTE WORLD TOWER, SEOUL
11. DOHA CONVENTION CENTER AND
12. ONE WOR;D TRADE CENTER, NY
13. CHOW TAI FOOK GUANGZHOW
14. TIANJIN CHOW TAI FOOK BINHAI
15. DALIAN GREENLAND CENTER
16. PEMTOMINIUM, DUBAI
17. BUSAN LOTTE TOWN TOWER
18. TAIPAI 101
19. KAISA FENG LOANG CENTER
20. SHANGHAI WFC
4. SHANGHAI TOWER
Location: Lujiazui finance and trade zone, Pudong District, Shanghai China
Area: 30,370 sq. m. (7.5 acres)
Height: 632m (2,073 ft.)
Stories: 121 occupied floors
Area: 410,000 sq. m. above grade and 164,000 sq. m. below grade
Program: Office, Luxury Hotel, Entertainment, Retail and Cultural Venues.
Height: 36.9m (121 ft.)
Stories: 5 stories above grade
Areas: 46,000 sq. m.
Program: Retail, Banking, Restaurant, Conference, Meeting and Banquet facilities.
Below grade levels will house retail. 1800 parking spaces, services and MEP functions.
SOM's 1,379-foot-tall Jin Mao Tower, KPF's 1,614-foot-tall Shanghai World Financial
Centre, and Gensler's 2,073-foot-tall Shanghai Tower make up a trio of super tall
buildings in Lujiazui.
7. BEST IN SHANGHAI TOWER
China’s first super high-rise to exceed 600 meters
World’s first single building with a weight of 850,000 tons constructed on a soft
Tallest green building
Strictly followed the demands of green
building certification, combined various
green building technologies and strategies,
in line with its commitment to
Largest pouring work for the main
building’s foundation surface
Completing the concrete pour at one time
by using 450 concrete mixer trucks, 8
pump stations of 4 districts throughout the
city and 60,000 cubic meters of concrete
within 63 hours
Tower bearings with the biggest
Round-shaped, self-bearing, continuous
walls as tower bearings with a diameter of
Curtain wall supporting steel
structure system with the highest
The most professional curtain wall sliding
bearings, with an accuracy of up to 2 mm
China’s largest construction cranes
Four M1280D tower cranes to improve
Heaviest damper 1,200 tons
Three sightseeing elevators with a maximum
upward speed of 18 meters/second
First super high-rise with cloud
Able to serve 15,000 to 20,000 people
Most advanced energy management
and control centre
Integrating CHP, Ground Source Heat Pump,
ice storage system, electric refrigeration,
boiler room, and other facilities.
The tower’s topmost levels (565m to 578m)
will house 270 wind turbines with a capacity
of 135 kW of power
Diesel generator with Asia’s biggest
Reserve capacity of up to 10,000 kW, single
capacity of 2500 kW
Window cleaning equipment in the
most complex path
Spiral-path gondola installed on top of the
Highest wind turbines
First Chinese-style luxury five-star hotel
Co-branding with Jinjiang International Hotel
Group – the J Hotel
Highest panorama restaurant On the 120th floor, at the height of 556.7m
Highest hotel lobby On the 101th floor, at the height of 470m
Highest swimming pool On the 84th floor, at the height of 393.4m
Highest sky lobby On the 101th floor, at the height of 470m
8. PROJECT MILESTONE
December 28, 1993
Planning Scheme of Shanghai Lujiazui Zone was approved by the Shanghai Government in the No.77
September 12, 2006
10 companies participated in the concept scheme solicitation and proposed 19 design plans and 21 design
December 5, 2007 Shanghai Tower Construction and Development Co., Ltd. was established.
April 18, 2008 American architecture firm Gensler’s design was selected as the final scheme for Shanghai Tower.
November 29, 2008 The construction of Shanghai Tower broke ground..
July 1, 2009 The pile foundation of the main building was finished.
March 24, 2010 Shanghai Tower was awarded the LEED Gold Precertification by the US Green Building Council (USGBC)
March 26-29, 2010 The 60,000 cubic meters of concrete was successfully poured into the main building backplane
September 28, 2010
The construction of the subsurface structure of the main building was completed with 2 layers above the
ground and 632 meters there for construction.
June 20, 2011 Shanghai Tower exceeded 100 meters.
December 6, 2011 Shanghai Tower exceeded 200 meters.
May 16, 2012 Shanghai Tower exceeded 300 meters.
August 2, 2012 The erection of the curtain wall of the main building was officially launched
September 13, 2012
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development officially awarded Shanghai Tower the “3-Star Green
Building Design Identity Certificate”.
December, 2012 Shanghai Tower exceeded 400 meters.
April 11, 2013 Shanghai Tower exceeded 500 meters.
August 3, 2013 Shanghai Tower topping out
August 3, 2014 Shanghai Tower reached the designed height of 632 meters
Shanghai Tower, located at the core of Pudong’s, Lujiazui
Finance and Trade Area in Shanghai
632 meters tall, with 121 floors above ground, 5 floors
underground and a total construction area of 576,000 square
It is a vertical city and a mixed-use structure, with office space,
a hotel, exhibition halls and both business and tourism
It gradually spirals with 120 deg. Inclination.
Its curved façade and spiraling form, symbolizes the dynamic
appearance of modern china.
The building strictly adheres to green building design standards.
Building employs various green building techniques and a high
greening ratio of 33%.
Together with its neighbours, the 420-meter Jinmao Tower and
the 492-meter Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai
Tower and its graceful spiralling design completes the urban
Location： Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone, Pudong, Shanghai, China
Area： 30,370 square meters
Main tower + podium
Height: 632 meters
Floors structural height: 580 meters 125 floors, 121 usable
Area: Approximately 576,000 square meters (410,000 square
meters above ground, 166,000 square meters underground)
Function: Office, hotels, recreation, sightseeing, retail and
Height: 38 meters
Floor: 5 Floors
Area: Approximately 60,100 square meters
Function: boutique retail, catering, hotel entrance, exhibitions
and banquets. Retail, parking lot, service and
electromechanically facilities are available in the basement
Owner / Developer： Shanghai Tower Construction and Development Co., Ltd.
With a RMB 8.6 billion registered capital, the company is
jointly funded by Shanghai Chengtou Corporation (51%),
Shanghai Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone Development Co.,
Ltd. (45%) and Shanghai Construction Group Co., Ltd. (4%).
At completion, Shanghai Tower will have 121 occupied floors,
4.09 million square feet (380,000 sq. m) of area above grade and
1.52 million square feet (141,000 sq. m) of area below grade, and
With nine zones, each comprising 12 to 15 stories and dedicated
to retail, office, hotel, and observation/cultural facility uses,
Shanghai Tower will be a self-contained city. The circular
building is wrapped in a second, exterior skin, which spirals
around it in a series of triangular shapes. The angles of these
triangles afford 21 public atriums, each 12 to 14 stories high.
With a direct tie into a subway stop, the building has a transit-oriented
The dual-skin feature of the structure is important aesthetically,
environmentally, and financially. The exterior skin tapers and
twists as it goes up the core, extending out into space at points.
The outer skin sort of acts like a coat; it tempers that space.”
Warm air will be drawn from the occupied spaces into the
atrium, where a chimney effect allows the heat to escape.
The aerodynamics of the spiral shape sharply reduce the wind load on the
building, allowing designers to use about one-third less structural steel than in a
A 120-degree twist was adopted for the building exterior profile.
The wind flows around the building in a completely different way.
The form also represents the emergence of Shanghai as a financial centre.
12. BUILDING FACTS
2nd tallest building in the world, and tallest building in
120 deg. turn: from base to top, the tower makes a
rotation that is optimal for minimising wind loads.
The geometry of the building saved 58 million dollars
in costly structural materials.
Innovation skin: the circular inner-glass façade
requires 14% less glass than a square building of the
same total floor area.
6 meter deep(18 foot) matt foundation: trucks
pumped concrete during a continuous 63 hours pour
Power generation: A 2, 130kW natural gas-fired
cogeneration system on the site will provide
electricity and heat energy for the low zone areas.
14. DURING THE CONSTRUCTION
BASEMENT CONSTRUCTED ON THE SITE
The configuration of Shanghai Tower, with circular office
and hotel floors stacked between triangular mechanical
floors, has just begun to reveal itself on the construction
15. The notch in the triangular mechanical floor plates helps mitigate
DURING THE CONSTRUCTION
Hydraulic platform for hanging the glass
Exterior curtain wall hanging system
16. BEST IN SHANGHAI TOWER
Three important strategies were adopted for the design:
i. He tower’s asymmetrical form
ii. Is tapering profile
iii. Its rounded corners
i. Daylighting: the c]glass sin admits maximum daylight, reducing the need for electrical
ii. Landscaping: one-third of the site is green space, with extensive landscaping that cools the
iii. Wind turbines: exterior lighting for the tower will be powered by 270 wind driven
Shanghai towers sustainable strategies will reduce the building’s carbon footprint by 34k
metric tons per year.
The tower has world’s fastest elevator with the speed equivalent to 40mph.
Structural efficiency: the simplifies mega-frame structure is an economical approach.
Counteracting sway: a tunes mass damper near the top of the tower improves the occupant's
FLOOR PLATES INNER SKIN OUTER-WALL
Uses 32 – 35% less structural materials
( concrete and steel ) than any other
conventional buildings. It results in
savings of 58million US$
20. FLOOR PLANS : AREAS
LEVEL AREA (sq. m.) LEVEL AREA (sq. m.)
8 6440 68 3479
9-19 4640 69-81 2424
22 5575 84 2955
23-34 3954 86-98 2047
37 4780 101 2497
38-49 3380 106-110 1755
52 4098 119 2080
21. FUNCTIONALITY & ZONE DISTRIBUTION
As a vertical city comprised of 9 zones, Shanghai Tower serves
five key functions:
1. It provides international-standard, Grade-A offices. The
area from Zone 2 to Zone 6 is comprised of approximately
220,000 square meters of office area. In each zone, there is
a trade floor providing corporations with fully-equipped
space for financial trade businesses. To meet the
differentiated demands of the financial service sector such
as banks, insurances, securities and funds, and regional
headquarters of transnational corporations together with
modern new-type service industries for offices, it offers
24/7, customized office space, system and service.
2. It houses a luxury five-star hotel and facilities. Zone 7 and
Zone 8 will house J Hotel-- a luxury five-star hotel
originating in China, with approximately 80000 square
meters in total. This hotel, run by top international hotel
management companies will offer high-end customers
personalized service, an experiential accommodation
environment and a luxurious space to meet their every
Different zones of the tower includes the following:
• Zone 1: Retail
• Zone 2: Office
• Zone 3: Office
• Zone 4: Office
• Zone 5: Office
• Zone 6: Office
• Zone 7: Hotel
• Zone 8: Hotel & Boutique Office
• Zone 9: Observation & Cultural Facilities
Shanghai Tower will become the landmark of
the Finance and Trade Area in Lujiazui and an
important foundation for the financial service
sector in Shanghai. Shanghai Tower also plays
an important role in optimizing the overall
planning of the Lujiazui area, perfecting city
space, improving comprehensive business
functions and accelerating the offerings of this
modern service sector.
22. FUNCTIONALITY & ZONE DISTRIBUTION
3. It provides space for themed boutique businesses. The main function of
B1, B2 and the annex lies in commerce, with an area of approximately
50,000 square meters. It involves unique commercial facilities such as
brand retail stores, specialized restaurants, business service centres and
lifestyle space, providing office staff, business people and residents with
all-around, high-quality products and services.
4. it offers sightseeing, cultural and recreational facilities. The sightseeing
area on the top of Zone 9 covers an area of 4,000 square meters.
Bringing to life the concept of an interactive, high-rise sightseeing, the
city’s beauty can be observed and taken in with this vantage
point. The city’s residents and visitors alike can take a break outside of
working hours in this space, where business meets culture for
sightseeing, shopping, recreation and relaxation.
5. it features event space and the facilities to accommodate them. The
banquet and conference areas in Zone 1 and the annex span 10000
square meters and meet the demands for conferences, forums,
exhibitions, art performances, celebrations, fashion shows, parties and
Additionally, there is a sky lobby composed of a double curtain wall at the
bottom of Zones 2-8. There is a total of 21 full-floor sky lobbies in the
building with transparent visions and panoramic city views, providing a safe
and comfortable work and social environment.
i. Retail and Conference
iv. Office Space
vi. Indoor Observation Desk
vii. Outdoor Observation
viii. Tuned Mass Damper
27. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED
SKETCH OF LATERAL FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM
The main part of the core-tube is a 30 m by 30 m square RC tube. The
thickness of the flange wall of the tube at the bottom is 1.2 m, and the thickness
decreases with the height of the tube and reduces to 0.5 m at the top. Similarly,
the thickness of the web wall decreases from 0.9 m at the bottom to 0.5 m at
According to the architectural functional requirements, the four corners of the
core-tube are gradually removed above Zone 5. Finally, the core-tube becomes
X-shaped at the top.
The mega-column system consists of 12 shaped-steel reinforced concrete
columns with a maximum cross-sectional dimension of 5,300 mm×3,700 mm.
8 mega-columns extend from the bottom to the top of the building, and the
section size gradually reduces to 2,400 mm×1,900 mm at the top.
The remaining 4 columns are located at each corner and only extend from the
ground floor to Zone 5.
The outrigger system, located at the mechanical stories, consists of circle trusses
and outriggers with a total height of 9.9 m. All of the components of the
outriggers are composed of H-shaped steel beams.
Four element types are used in this model: the spatial beam elements used for
the external frames and outriggers, the multi-layer shell elements used for the
shear walls and the mega-columns, the truss elements used for the rebar and the
shaped-steels, and membrane elements for the floor slabs. The details are
described in the following subsections.
29. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED
MEGA FRAME AND OUTRIGGER DETAIL
Steel I-sections are embedded in
concrete, that supports the
The double belt truss supported
through main 8 columns support
the curtain walls.
The main 8 columns reduces in size
as the building grows in height, to
complement the reducing volume
30. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED
Shanghai Tower asymmetry was designed in such way that wind loads were reduced by
24 percent, producing building materials and construction savings. The Tower design
features four pairs of super columns organized as nine cylindrical buildings stacked one
Shanghai Tower inner layer has a triangular exterior layer that constantly shapes the
building façade from all directions.
The building contains a double skin façade that creates nine atrium sky gardens,
cylindrical buildings stacked one atop the other, that could be used as plazas and
reunions. Both skin facades are transparent establishing a connection between the
building's interior and Shanghai’s urban fabric.
The tower features a unique “dual-skin” exterior, with the circular building wrapped in a
second, exterior skin, which spirals around it. The varying angles of the second skin
create 21 landscaped public atriums, each 12 to 14 stories high, which will feature retail
and meeting spaces with sweeping views of the city.
The dual-skin feature of the structure is important not only aesthetically but also
environmentally and financially.
The outer skin acts like a coat, tempering the space; warm air will be drawn from the
occupied spaces into the atrium, where a chimney effect allows the heat to escape.
Additionally, the aerodynamics of the spiral shape significantly reduce the wind load on
the building, allowing designers to use about one-third less structural steel than in a
31. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED
The skyscraper comprises nine cylindrical buildings stacked on top of
each other, all enclosed by a circular inner curtain wall and a triangular
facade enveloping the entire structure.
The tower is supported on 831 reinforced concrete bore piles sunk deep
into the ground.
At its heart is a concrete core, of 30 sq. m. This itercts with the 4 super
columns. The core acts in concert with an outrigger and ‘super-column’
system, with double-belt trusses that support the base of each of the
nine vertical neighbourhoods.
The outrigger trusses and super columns derive stiffness from the
concrete inner building, producing an effective system for resisting wind
and seismic loads for super tall buildings. This approach has made for
an easier and faster construction process, meaning significant cost
savings for the client.
The tower’s form was refined using wind tunnel tests, which ultimately
reduced building wind loads by 24 per cent. The tests pinpointed a 120-
degree rotation as optimal for minimizing the wind loads.
The result is a simpler and lighter structure with unprecedented
transparency and a 32 per cent reduction in costly materials
32. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED
To carry the load of the transparent glass skin, an innovative curtain wall has been designed which is suspended from the mechanical
floors above and stabilized by a system of hoop rings and struts.
The laminated glass panels filter the sun, wind and rain, while the inner skin encloses the interior space with a unitized low-E coated
insulating glass curtain wall system with integral operable solar control devices.
This double skin wall system takes advantage of the stack effect to provide natural ventilation and cooling.
The buffer areas between the inner and outer skins help to regulate the environment as well as collect and recycle rain water.
35. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UNDERTAKEN
The tower’s profound twist expression is the result of its geometry,
which can be broken down into three key :
1. Horizontal profile :
The profile shape is based on an equilateral triangle.
Two tangential curves offset at 60 degrees were used to create a
This shape is driven by two variables:
the radius of the large circle and its location relative to the center
of the equilateral triangle (profile). It should be noted that the
actual shape of the profile is independent of the remaining two
key geometric drivers.
As a result, Gensler had the ability to look at the effect of
modifying the horizontal profile and the impact such changes
had on the tower form at all stages of the design.
36. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UNDERTAKEN
2. Vertical profile :
• The concept of the form is to take the horizontal profile and extrude it vertically
and conform to the vertical profile.
• From a functional point of view, it was important to maintain a wide footprint for
the lower third of the tower, with a slender footprint at the upper third—a
reduction of about 55% overall.
• This proportional distribution allowed for large lease spans within the office
portion of the tower and smaller spans within the upper-level hotel/boutique
• Adjusting the two values in the horizontal profile and this third value in the
vertical profile, we now have complete control of vertical ratio, gross floor area
and building form.
37. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UNDERTAKEN
3. Rate of twist:
This is a simple linear rotation from base to top.
The fact that this final value can be changed independently allowed for great flexibility in the
design stage, especially in selecting the best combined overall building performance.
The Gensler design team had anticipated that significant reduction in both tower structural wind
loading and wind cladding pressures could be established if the building further improved its
proposed geometry following the variables previously explained.
Several scenarios were proposed involving rotation at 90°, 120°, 150°, 180° and 210° and then
scaling off 25%, 40% , 55%, 70% and 85%.
Results acquired through this process have shown that a scaling factor of about 55% and rotation
at 120° can account for up to 24% savings in structural wind loading and cladding pressure
This equates to about $50 million (USD) in savings in the building structure alone. Additionally, it
helped optimize and distribute maximum cladding loads on the building while maintaining
desired aesthetics. Aesthetic concerns prevented the 180° rotation from being pursued, even
though it would reduce loading by an additional 9% .
38. BUILDING DESIGN : WIND TUNNEL SCALIG & ROTATION MODEL
Shanghai tower: wind tunnel study scaling models (left) and wind tunnel study rotation models (right).
39. SUSTAINABLE HIGHLIGHTS
The Shanghai Tower features some extraordinary nature-friendly aspects such as:
The inner glass, part of the buildings façades, uses 14 percent less glass than a building occupying the same
area but in a square design.
The glass façade minimizes energy consumption.
By having two skin layers forming the building façade the Tower creates thermal buffer zones, that improves
indoor air quality.
Some of the building’s parapets are designed to collect rainwater, used for tower’s heating and AC systems.
Shanghai Tower’s spiral shape creates an asymmetrical surface that reduces wind loads acting on the building.
Water treatment plants recycle grey water and storm water for irrigation and toilet use.
A 38 % water consumption reduction is achieved by having interim water storage tanks distributed within the
tower allowing the water pressure to be maintained by gravity.
Shanghai Tower has two chiller plants, strategically located, in the building reducing energy required to pump
On-site power is generated by wind turbines located directly beneath the parapet.
Building is designed to save 21.59% in annual energy costs.