3. Sustainable development is an
advancement that happens without
trading off with the necessities of
group of people yet to come.
4. I . Environmental care ‘married’ to development.
ii. Improving the quality of human life while living within the
carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems.
iii. Development based on the principle of inter-generational,
inter-species and inter-group equity.
iv. Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
v. An environmental ‘handrail’ to guide development.
vi. A change in consumption patterns towards more benign
products, and a shift in investment patterns towards augmenting
vii. A process that seeks to make manifest a higher standard of
living for human beings that recognizes this cannot be achieved at
the expense of environmental integrity
5. I. Defining national sustainable development strategies :-
A national sustainable development strategy (NSDS) can be
defined as “a coordinated, participatory and iterative
process of thoughts and actions to achieve economic,
environmental and social objectives in a balanced and
integrative manner.” Five principles that distinguish an
NSDS have been derived:
(1) Country ownership and commitment;
(2) Integrated economic, social and environmental policy
across sectors, territories and generations;
(3) Broad participation and effective partnerships;
(4) Development of the necessary capacity and enabling
(5) Focus on outcomes and means of implementation.
6. II . International and regional commitments to nationalsustainabledevelopment strategies :-
In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first
International Earth Summit. The Summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of
environmental protection and socioeconomic development at the global level. The assembled
leaders signed the Declaration on Global Climate Change and Biological Diversity. The Rio
Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving
Sustainable Development in the 21st century Agenda 21 - It is the declaration signed by
world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(UNCED), which took place at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It aims at achieving global sustainable
development One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should
draw its own local Agenda 21.
7. III . The picture across regions :-
The global map demonstrates substantial variations across regions .
Europe is the region for which reliable information on the status of
NSDS implementation is most complete: 88 per cent have reported
their status, and 77 per cent were implementing an NSDS in 2009.
Information availability for other regions varies between 55 % in
Africa, 62 % in the Americas and 64 % in both Asia and Oceania. In
terms of implementation, Oceania is the region with the second
highest share of countries implementing an NSDS, with 64 %,
followed by Asia with 57 %, the Americas with 46 % and Africa with
40 %. Compared to the situation in 2007, heterogeneity across
regions has diminished, as the implementation rate has increased the
most in Africa (by 12 percentage points), Asia (by 17 percentage
points) and the Americas (by 20 percentage points). However, within
region variations remains high, in particular in Asia. All five Central
Asian countries reported that they are implementing an NSDS,
whereas this holds only for seven out of 17 countries in Western Asia.
8. International organization, institution
drawing membership from at least
three states, having activities in several
states, and whose members are held
together by a formal agreement.
The Union of International
Associations, a coordinating
body, between the more than 250
(IGOs), which have been established by
intergovernmental agreements and
whose members are states, and the
approximately 6,000 NGOs, whose
members are associations or individuals.
ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION
12. disparity, with the following results: a poor literacy rate in water-deficit districts; concentration of
industry and housing in regions with better water resources endowment; and demographic change, e.g.
the shift of the prime workforce from drought-prone districts to water-surplus districts. This in turn
denies the right to life, development, health, food, education and work for these migrant communities. To
ensure a balanced development when there is less than one acre per capita of cultivable landholding and
over 14 000 villages out of 18 563 are suffering from water scarcity, there is no other alternative but to
transfer water from surplus to scarce areas of the state. This paper aims to raise some issuses in the
context of sustainable development.
Large Dams and Sustainable
Development: A Case-study of the
Sardar Sarovar Project:-
India Along with being a basic human need, water is also a
basic constituent for the survival of eco-systems of which
people and their cultures are important components. during
the past 50 years, with agriculture being the maximum
water user, leading to over-exploitation of ground water and
steadily depleting water tables along with a heavy energy
bill. Gujarat State falls in a water stressed zone of the
country and is also the victim of intra-state asymmetric
water availability leading to an unwanted socio-economic
Case study 1
13. Mona had a nightmare. She dreamt that all the water on the earth had
dried up and all the trees cut down. There was no shade and nothing to
eat or drink. People were suffering and roaming around desperately
looking for food and shade . She told her mother about the dream.
“Amma can this really happen?” she asked. “Yes,” Amma replied. “If we
are not careful then even renewable resources can become very scarce
and then on- renewable ones can definitely get exhausted”. “What can
we do about it,” Raju asked. “Lots,” replied Amma. Using resources
carefully and giving them time to get renewed is called resource
conservation. That evening the children and their friends made packets
and shopping bags out of old newspapers, discarded clothes and baskets
from bamboo sticks. “We will give a few to every family we know,” said
Mona. “After all it is fora very good cause,” said Mustafa, “To save our
resources and to keep our earth alive ” .“ I am going to be very careful
not to wastepaper,” said Jessy. “Many trees are cut down to make
paper,” she explained . “I will see that electricity is not wasted in my
house,” shouted Mustafa. “Electricity comes from water and coal.
Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future
is called sustainable development. There are many ways of conserving
resources. Each person can contribute by reducing consumption, recycling
and reusing thing. Ultimately it makes a difference because all our lives
Case study 2