Administration of nursing curriculm (Harmandeep Kaur) (1).pptx
2. The word curriculum is the derived from te latin
word “Currere” which means run. Thus curriclum
is a runway for attaining the goals of education .
Curriculum may be considered as a blue print of
an education programme . It is the basis of
education on which teaching learning process is
planned and implemented .
3. • Principal’s background Family
• Political and agricultural factors Vacation
• Research findings Religion and culture
• Departmental decisions Employment oppurtunity
• Local Governing body rulings Social,civil and ecnomic aspects
• Programmed instructions Teachers and subject to be studied
• Study projects
• Learner requirement
4. • Planning
• Develop philosophy and objectives for educational programe.
• Identifies the present needs related to educational
• Investigates, evaluates and secures resources.
• Formulates the plan of action.
• Selects and organizes learning experience.
• Participates in the formulation of admission and recruitment
5. • Organising
• Determine the number of position and scope and
responsibility of each faculty and staff.
• Analyses and prepares the job description, indicates line of
authority, responsibility in the relationship and channels of
communication by means of organizational chart.
• Delegates authority with responsibility.
• Maintain a plan of workload among staff members
6. • Directing
• Recommends appointments and promotions based on
qualification and experience.
• Provides adequate orientation to staff members.
• Guides and encourages staff members in their job activities.
• Consistently makes administrative decision based on
• Creates staff involvement in designing educationally sound
• Co-ordinates activities relating to the programme such as
administration meeting, staff meeting, parents teachers
• Co-ordinates various committees like curriculum committee,
ethical committee, budgeting committee.
• Co-ordinates various programme like S N A and motivate the
staff and students to participate in the various programs.
• Recognize the need for continuing education self and staff
and provide stimulation of opportunities for such such
• Maintain recognition of the educational
programme by accrediting bodies like K N C, I N
C and university.
• Prepare, secures approves and administrates
9. • Evaluation of nursing programme is the process of determined the extent to which education
provided is effective and make significant contribution to the meeting health care
needs.Programme evaluation as “process of making informed judgement about the quality of
Purposes of programme evaluation
• To dignose problem,weaknesses and strength,test new and different approches for
advancement of programme.
• Formulation of philosiphy,objectives and conceptual frame work.
• Helps faculty ad administrator to manage fiscal resourses,make adminstrative and curiculum
Models of evaluation of education programme in nursing
• Contest,input,process and product complised the four type of evaluation in stufflebeans model
contest evaluation serves decision making for the planning of an on going programme and
there for formative in nature.For eg.- “What needs to be done?”
10. • Input Evaluation:Provides informaton about neccessary and available to reach the programme
goals.It involves question regarding feasibility,avialibility,coast and potential advantages and
disadvantages.Foe eg.- “How should it be done?”
• Process Evaluation:Provides feedback to administrator and participants of the programme
which predicts problem with day to day problem.For eg.- “Is it being done?”
• Product Evaluation:Serves to measure the extent to which the goals have been achieved.For
eg.- “Did the project succeed?”
• The CIPP evaluation model is designed to systematically guide both evaluators and
stakeholders in posing relevant questions and conducting assessments at the beginning of a
project, while it is in progress, and at its end.
• This approach seeks to improve and achieve accountability in educational programming
through a “learning-by-doing” approach.
• [Context,Input,Process=Formative] and [Product=Summative]
12. Comparitive course evaluation model
• Comparative course evaluation is the process designed to identify articulation,duplication and
omission of learning opportunities between courses in a curriculum .It involves systematic
examination of course syllabi in order to identify omissions and duplication of content and
behavioral objectives between courses.
Discrepancy evaluation model
• Discrepancy evaluation refers to the search for difference between two or more element
variable of an education training programme that according to the logcal,rational,criterion
should be in arrangementn or correspondence.
Goal free evaluation model
• The focus of goal free evaluation is to determine the importance and value of final outcome not
intensions the design of the programme.It is an approach proposed by servian 1972 as a means
of ensuring that evaluators take unit account that actual effect and not just the indeed effect of
education and training programme. In this casethe evaluators make special effort not to be
influenced by programme goals, which are relevant to programme planning not to programme
13. Definition of Evaluation
• Evaluation is a value judgment on an observation
“performance test” or indeed any ‟data‟ whether directly
measured or inferred. (International Dictionary of
• Evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the
educational objectives are being realized. (Ralph Tyler,1950)
• To determine the level of knowledge and under-standing of
the student in her/his classes at various times during the
year or semester.
• To determine the level of the student‟s clinical performances
at various stages.
• To become aware of the specific difficulties of individual
student of an entire class as a basis for further teaching.
• To diagnosis each student‟s strengths and weaknesses and
to suggest remedial measures which may be needed.
• To encourage student‟s learning by measuring their
achievement and inform them of their success
15. CONTINUE PURPOSES
• To help student to acquire the attitude of and skills in self-
• To help student to become increasingly self-directing in their study.
• To provide the additional motivation of examinations that provides
opportunity to practice critical thinking, the application of principle,
the making of judgment, etc.
• To estimate the effectiveness of teaching and learning techniques of
subject content, and of instructional media in reaching the goals of
• To gather information needed for administrative purposes, such as
selecting students for higher course, placement of students for
advance training, writing recommendations, meeting graduation
16. Principles of evaluation
• Considering, the interrelationship between objectives,
instruction or learning experiences and evaluation.
• Determining and clarifying what is to be evaluation.
• Selecting evaluation techniques in terms of objectives to be
• Combining a variety of evaluation techniques for
• Knowing the strength and limitations of various evaluation
• Taking evaluation as a mean to an end, not an end in itself.
18. FORMATIVE EVALUATION
• The term „formative‟ denotes the ongoing or systemic assessment of student
achievement while the term, course or program in progress.
• Formative evaluation is used to monitor learning progress during instruction and to
provide continuous feedback to both student and teacher concerning learning
success and failure. Feedback to student reinforces learning and feedback to teacher
provides information for modifying instruction.
• Formative evaluation is done during an instructional programme. It is focus on
• It is cause seeking.
• It is interested in the broader experiences of the program users.
• Formative evaluations design is exploratory and flexible.
• It tends to ignore local effects of particular programme.
• It seeks to identify influential variables.
• It requires analysis of instruction material for mapping the structure of the learning
tasks and actual teaching of course for a certain period.
19. SUMMATIVE EVALUATION
• The term “summative” refers to assigning a grade for student‟s achievement at
end of a term, course or programme.
• Summative evaluation typically comes at the end of a course of instruction. It is
designed to determine the extent to which the instructional objective have been
achieved and is used primarily for assigning course grade or certifying student
mastery of the intended learning outcome.
• There should be some instructional programme before summative evaluation.
• Summative evaluation should check whether there has been learning or not.
• It tends to use of well-defined evaluation designs.
• Summative evaluation focuses on analysis.
• It provides descriptive analysis.
• It is concerned with broad range of issues.
• Its instrument is valid and reliable.
• It tends to stress local effects.
21. Quantitative Techniques
• These are mainly used in educational evaluation. These are highly valid and
reliable. They possess all three characteristics of a criterion test which includes
appropriateness, effectiveness and practical ability.
• The quantitative test can be classified into three types
1. Oral technique: Oral techniques of evaluation are used as lower level in
organizing and teaching activities. The oral questions, debate and drama are used
for this purpose.
2. Written techniques: these include the written questions that are asked and
student has to write their answers. The written test are most effective than oral
test. The written test is usually essay type and objective type test.
3. Practical technique: in practical technique type of evaluation some work is
assigned to the student to accomplish it such techniques are used to assess the
skills. This technique is used in science, medical, nursing and engineering etc.
22. Qualitative techniques
• These techniques are used in schools and colleges for internal assessment. These
techniques are subjective and less reliable, but they are used for assessing the
affective objectives. These techniques are classified into five categories:
1. Cumulative record: these records are prepared in schools and colleges foe each
student. The cumulative records of the students include educational progress
results of tests, attendance, and participation in games, extra-curricular activities
and physical health. The cumulative record of the students provides the awareness
about their progress and weakness to teachers and parents.
2. Anecdotal records: this type of records maintains the description of significant
event and performance of student. The interest and learning of the students can be
assessed with help of such records.
3. Observation technique: it is used in all the stages of education but most useful in
evaluating the small children at primary level.it is used for evaluating cognitive,
affective and psychomotor objectives.
23. Continue of Qualitative techniques
4. Check list: this is used for evaluating interest, attitude,
and values of students. It includes certain statement of yes
or no type; the student has to check either of two.
5. Rating scale: the rating scale is used for assessing the
attitude of students towards teaching and subjects. It is
used for higher classes because it requires the power of
judgment of students. The statement of scales are concern
with the specific objectives and learning.
• An employee of the university who has instructional, advisory, evaluative, supervisory, and/or
other professional responsibilities. Faculty refers to the individuals who give direct instruction
to the students FACULTY Full-Time:- Instructor, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor,
Professor, Part-Time:- Lecturer,Clinical Professor, Clinical Supervisor, Teaching Assistant.
• Staff tends to refer to the office workers and support people on campus. Non-teaching
employees of the college. An employee of the university other than faculty. Eg:- the
administrative staff (secretaries, assistants, deans, presidents, etc.
• Faculty and staff formed a partnership to discuss ways in which to foster and sustain
positive faculty and staff relations through mutual trust, respect, and civility. Effective
working condition by proper interaction and communication for work collaboratively
25. ESSENTIALS OF FACULTY STAFF
• Developing partnerships, which are keys to improved relations; and beginning the
discussion and developing procedures for working together.
• Best Practices that Encourage a Climate of Positive Communication and Cooperation
between Faculty and Staff,
• Best practices were assessed within the context and of the campus/department
environment where they were successfully implemented.
• Best practices are, to identify and to reinforce positive behavior and partnership.
• Build awareness of the avenues available to faculty and staff to resolve conflicts
throughmeetings and orientation of the new employee.
• Foster open and inclusive communications at the department level among faculty and
• FACULTY SUPERVISOR IS A MEMBER OF THE CURRICULUM COORDINATOR WHO IS
RESPONSIBLE FOR CURRICULUM PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION.
QUALITIES OF FACULTY SUPERVISOR
• Reading Comprehension
• Written comprehension
• Learning strategies
27. RESPONSIBILITIES OR DUTIES OF FACULTY
3. Getting information
6. Participate in workshop and committees
7. conference with memeber of educational committee,groups
8. Research,evaluate and prepare recommendations
9. Advice teaching and staff in curriculum
10. plan and conduct teaching program
11. Develop tests,questionnaires and procedures
12. Advice and teach students
• Research curriculum is a systematic attempt to gain a better understanding of all components
NEEDS OF CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN NURSING
• Realm of educational objectives and their use by children and teachers in the teaching learning
• The problem of selecting and organizing learning experiences.
• Evaluation of curriculum.
SCOPE OF CURRICULUM RESEARCH
• Nursing education
• Nursing practice
• Nursing administration
29. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
• Observational and narrative research methods
• Non Observational ,survey and self reports
• Disclosure analysis and problem solving methods.
• Critical reflective and evaluative research
• ‘Co’ and ‘Laborie’ in Latin meaning ”work together”.
• Interaction among two or more individuals, which can encompass a variety of actions such as
communication, information sharing, co-ordination, co-operation, problem solving and
• Collaboration is the most formal inter organizational relationship involving shared authority
TYPES OF COLLABORATION:
1. INTERDISCIPLINARY :The term used to indicate the combining of two or more disciplines,
professions, departments usually in regard to practice, research and/or theory.
2. MULTI DISCIPLINARY:Refers to independent work and decision making such as when
disciplines work side by side on a problem.
3. TRANSDISCIPLINARY:Involves multiple disciplines sharing together their knowledge skills
across traditional disciplinary boundaries in accomplishing tasks or goals.
4. INTER PROFESSIONAL : Involve interaction of two or more disciplines involving professionals
who work together, with intention, mutual respect and for commitment for the sake of a more
adequate response to a human problem
31. NEED FOR COLLABORATION
• Increasing the gap between nursing service and education
• Graduate nurses often lack practical skills despite their significant knowledge of nursing
process and theory
• Partnership between nursing education and hospital nursing personnel is essential to meet this
MODELS OF COLLABORATION
Clinical school of nursing model 
• This was the concept of visionary nurses from both La Trobe and The Alfred Clinical School of
• The development of the Clinical School offers benefits to both hospital and university.
• Encompasses the highest level of academic and clinical nursing research and education.
• It brings academic staff to the Hospital, with opportunities for exchange of ideas with clinical
nurses with increased opportunities for clinical nursing research.
• It is importance of continuing link between theory & practice.
32. Dedicated Education Unit Clinical Teaching Model 
• In this model a partnership of nurse executives, staff nurses and faculty transformed patient
care units into environments of support for nursing students and staff nurses while continuing
the critical work of providing quality care to acutely ill adults.
• Results of implementation of this model in which staff nurses assumed the role of nursing
instructors showed high student and nurse satisfaction and marked increase in the clinical
capacity that allowed for increased enrolment.
RESEARCH JOINT APPOINTMENTS [CLINICAL CHAIR] , 2000
• A Joint Appointment has been defined by Lantz et al. (1994), as “a formalised agreement
between two institutions where an individual holds a position in each institution and carries out
specific and defined responsibilities”.
• Research Joint Appointments (Clinical Chair)  • The goal of this approach is to use the
implementation of research findings as a basis for improving critical thinking and clinical
decision-making of nurses.
33. Practice-Research Model (PRM)
• It is an innovative collaborative partnership agreement between Fremantle Hospital and Health
Service and Curtin University of Technology in Perth, Western Australia.
• The partnership engages academics in the clinical setting in two formalized collaborative
• This partnership not only enhances communication between educational and health services,
but fosters the development of nursing research and knowledge.
• Enhances communication between educational and health services, but fosters the
development of nursing research and knowledge.
COLLABORATIVE CLINICAL EDUCATION EPWORTH DEAKIN [CCEED]
• In an effort to improve the quality of new graduate transition, Epworth Hospital and Deakin
University ran a collaborative project (2003) funded by the National Safety and Quality Council
to improve the support base for new graduates while managing the quality of patient care
• It developed to facilitate clinical learning, promote clinical scholarship and build nurse
• Tutorials, laboratories and clinical placements are conducted by Epworth clinicians who are
prepared and supported by Deakin School of Nursing faculty.
34. THE COLLABORATION LEARNING UNIT [BRITISH
• This is based on “Dedicated Education Units” concept implemented in Australia.
• In the CLU model, students practice and learn on a nursing unit, each following an individual set
rotation and choosing their learning assignment according to their learning plans.
• Unlike the traditional one-to-one preceptor ship , an emphasis is placed on student responsibility
for self guiding and for communicating their learning plan with faculty and clinical nurses.
• All nursing staff members are involved in this model and therefore the students gain a wide
variety of knowledge and also has the ability to provide practice experiences for a large number
• As learners in CLU model are supported by experienced clinical nurses, faculty and nurse
researchers. Students recognize a positive learning environment and provide high quality
• COLLABORATIVE APPROACH TO NURSING CARE [CAN-
CARE] MODEL, 2006
• As academic and practice leaders acknowledged the need to work together to promote the
education, recruitment and retention of nurses at all stages of their career.
• The goal was to design an educationally dense, practice based experience to
socialize students to the role of professional nurse
• A secondary goal was to enhance and support the professional and career
development of unit based nurses
• The essence of CAN care model is the relationship between the nurse
learner (student) and nurse expert (unit based nurse) within the context of
each nursing situation
• It focus of student’s activities moves from the demonstration of discrete skills
and prescribed outcomes to an immersion into professional nursing role,
learning to hear and respond to the patient’s needs and to provide nursing
care to achieve quality outcome
36. THE BRIDGE TO PRACTICE MODEL, 2008
• First, students complete all of their clinical experiences in one participating
• Second, one full-time teaching faculty serves as a liaison for each bridge
hospital. This faculty member is given a space usually in the nursing
education department and is available to serve as a resource for not only the
clinical associates but also for hospital nursing staff
• Third, students are actively involved in selecting their clinical placements.
• In this model therefore there can be numerous clinical associates in one
hospital with one full time University faculty overseeing the clinical
37. COLLABORATION OF NURSING EDUCATION
AND SERVICE IN INDIA
• The gap between nursing practice and education has its historical roots in the
separation of nursing schools from the control of hospitals to which they are
• While this separation has been beneficial in advancing nursing education, it has also
had adverse effects.
• Under the divided system, the nurse educators are no longer the practicing nurses in
the wards or directly involved in the delivery of nursing services used for student’s
• The practicing nurses have little opportunity to share the practical knowledge with
students and no longer share their responsibility for ensuring the relevance of the
training that the student receive.
• As the gap between the education and practice has widened, there are now
significant difference between what is taught in the classroom and what is practiced in
the service setting. The need for the greater collaboration between nursing education
and service call for urgent attention.
38. We have two institution which are practicing dual role, education and practice:
1. NIMHANS Bangalore.
2. CMC Vellore
DUAL ROLE MODEL IN NIMHANS
• Following the amalgamation of 1974 resulting in NIMHANS, the faculty of the nursing
department took up the dual role of providing clinical services as well as conducting teaching
program. The head of the department of nursing was given the responsibility for both the
service and education components of the department.
• Integration of the education with the service raised the quality of the patient care and also
improved the quality of learning experience for nursing student, under the close supervision of
teachers who were also practitioners.
INTEGRATIVE SERVICE EDUCATION IN CMC VELLORE
• College of nursing under Christian Medical College Vellore where nurse educator practicing in
the ward are directly involving in the delivery of the nursing services. This enable the practicing
nurse to share her practical knowledge to the student nurse who is practicing in the concerned
39. • Knowlwdge of diseases and nursing care.
• Observing the individual in his total environment.
• Assessing the health need and identifying health
• Planning care to meet the needs.
• Giving care.
• Evaluating the effectiveness of care.